Acute gastritis: symptoms and treatment

Acute gastritis is an acute inflammatory process in the area of ​​the gastric mucosa. Depending on the etiology, it can affect both part of the mucous membrane and the entire surface. This disease has no limitations regarding age and sex, it is diagnosed even in children of younger preschool age. The latter is due to the fact that the child can consume large amounts of harmful food and drinks. With timely treatment begun, the prognosis is favorable, no complications arise.



Etiology

The etiology of this gastroenterological disease has been well studied. Clinicians identify the following causes of acute gastritis:


  • smoking and alcohol abuse
  • long-term treatment with heavy drugs that disruptively affect the gastric mucosa
  • a previous infectious disease
  • gastric mucosa burn with an alkaline or acidic solution
  • mechanical damage, consequence after operation;
  • inflammation of the mucosa, which can be caused not only by an ailment, but also by frequent endoscopic examinations.

We should separately say about this etiological factor, like malnutrition:


  1. poorly chewed food
  2. frequent eating in the dry
  3. frequent intake of too cold or too hot food
  4. sweet fizzy drinks and alcohol
  5. Overeating and fasting
  6. abuse of salted, fried, too flavored, smoked and bold

It should be noted that acute gastritis in children, most often, is diagnosed precisely because of malnutrition. Therefore, in order to prevent the development of acute gastritis in a child, it is necessary to accustom it from an early age to healthy food and proper diet.

Classification

This disease in the international classification is assigned a separate value. Code for the ICD 10 — K29.

According to the peculiarities of the clinical picture, these types of acute gastritis in adults and children are distinguished:


  • catarrhal
  • necrotic
  • diphtheritic;
  • phlegmonous.

Each of these forms has its differences in the clinical picture, so you can establish an accurate diagnosis only after carrying out laboratory-instrumental clinical events.

Symptoms

At the initial stage of the inflammatory process, signs of acute gastritis may indicate an insignificant disorder in the digestive system.

With the development of the disease, you can observe such common symptoms of acute gastritis:


  1. loss of appetite, for no apparent reason;
  2. an unpleasant aftertaste in the mouth that does not go away even after eating food or drinks
  3. a feeling of heaviness in the abdomen, bouts of dull pain
  4. nausea, occasionally vomiting;
  5. Emetic masses are abundant, with a sharp unpleasant odor.

With the form of acute form of acute gastritis, the clinical picture is supplemented by such symptoms:


  • severe abdominal pain
  • elevated body temperature;
  • chills, fever
  • impurities of pus in stools.

The catarrhal form of acute gastritis is supplemented by such signs:


  1. Constant elevated body temperature;
  2. Dehydration caused by severe vomiting
  3. unstable stool.

In children, the symptoms of acute gastritis of any form are supplemented by sleep disturbances, capriciousness and total refusal to eat. In this case, a sharp deterioration in the patient’s condition is clearly noticeable. Immediate hospitalization is required.

Diagnostics

In view of the fact that the clinical picture of acute gastritis is in many respects similar to other gastrointestinal diseases, in most cases additional differential diagnosis is performed. In view of this, it is strongly discouraged to use any drugs arbitrarily.




Initially, the physician conducts a physical examination of the patient, with palpation of the abdomen and clarification of the general anamnesis. Then follows such tests:


  • general and biochemical blood test
  • study of stool;
  • Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity;
  • radiography
  • Endoscopy
  • study of the composition of the secretion of the stomach.

It should be noted that if the exacerbation of gastritis begins, then endoscopic studies do not. If there is a suspicion of poisoning with toxic substances, then a laboratory study of the vomiting is carried out.

As for the methods of differential diagnosis, there are activities that help confirm or exclude the presence of such diseases:


  1. pancreatitis
  2. cholecystitis;
  3. appendicitis

Only on the basis of the results of the study the doctor can determine what to treat the disease, and what further predictions can be made.

Treatment

How to treat acute gastritis can correctly say only a doctor-gastroenterologist, after an accurate diagnosis. Use, in this case, folk remedies can only be recommended by a specialist.

First of all, medical events are carried out, which help to improve the state of health — they purify the stomach with a probe. However, it should be noted that with exacerbated gastritis, such activities are not carried out. Also, if necessary, clean the intestines.

In general, the treatment of acute gastritis consists of the following clinical events:


  • drug therapy;
  • diet.

Medication therapy includes the administration of drugs of this spectrum of action:


  1. antispasmodics
  2. antacids;
  3. anticholinergics
  4. prokinetics with severe vomiting
  5. Enterosorbents
  6. antibiotics, if the etiology of gastritis is poisoning with toxic substances.

The restoration of the water-electrolyte balance is carried out by the introduction of physiological solutions. Dosage of medications, frequency of admission and treatment is prescribed only by the attending physician. Unauthorized use of any medications for the treatment of acute gastritis is unacceptable.

A diet with acute gastritis implies the following:


  • exclusion of foods that irritate the gastric mucosa
  • preference is given to food cooked for steamed, boiled, crushed,
  • the food should only be warm;
  • Exception of alcohol and tobacco
  • Low-fat meat and fish, broths and second courses are well suited.

If you follow all the prescriptions of the doctor, you can completely cure acute gastritis and exclude its manifestation in the future.

Possible complications

As a rule, the acute form of the disease is well treatable and does not cause complications. However, if therapy is not started, then complications such as:


  1. the transition from an acute stage to a chronic one;
  2. stomach ulcers
  3. development of an erosive form of gastritis

Prevention

Preventive measures against acute gastritis are as follows:


  • adherence to the right diet;
  • correct and timely introduction of new dishes into the baby’s diet
  • good rest;
  • prevention, timely treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases of the digestive tract
  • compliance with oral hygiene
  • moderate exercise;
  • regular outdoor walks




In addition, we should not forget about the regular passage of medical examination from specialized medical specialists. At the initial stage of manifestation of the clinical picture, you need to seek medical help, and not prescribe yourself treatment yourself.