Anchondroma: Symptoms and Treatment
Enchondroma is a bona fide formation formed from cartilaginous tissue that arises and progresses within the bone. It is a limited area of the hyaline cartilage of heterotopic localization. This means that the tumor is located in those places where normal cartilage tissue should not be formed.
More often than not, the endochroma affects the human bones (ribs, phalanges of fingers, thighs and so on), but in medicine there have been many cases when the doctors identified doctors in unusual places — lungs, mammary glands, ovaries.
The most common growth of such a tumor begins as a child. But gradually the growth is suspended. Often, endochondrosis is diagnosed in patients aged 10 to 20 years. However, such pathological entities, if not treated in a timely manner, can persist in a person throughout his life.
Enchondromas usually develop on small bones — on phalanges of fingers, ribs, feet. But also the defeat of larger bones — the femoral, humeral, long bones of the limbs — is also possible. Despite the fact that education does not grow rapidly and usually does not cause any discomfort to the patient, doctors consider them to be potentially dangerous malignant tumors, so it is strongly recommended that they be surgically removed.
The true reasons for the formation of the human endochrome have not yet been established for the time being. But practically all scientists agree that the formation of these tumors is not associated with the negative impact of radiation or the professional activity of the patient.
The endodroma begins to develop from areas of cartilage that are located in atypical sites for it. Repeatedly, studies were carried out during which it was found that the heterotropic localization of the cartilage is a consequence of a violation of the process of ossification. As a rule, this occurs in the intrauterine period of fetal development and in the first few years of the child’s life. Some doctors suggest that the growth of the endodroma may be triggered by the development of rickets, inflammatory bowel disease or various trauma.
Neoplasm is a fully mature hyaline cartilage that has lost its structure. It is worth noting the fact that in normal cartilage cells are located in a certain order, and in such pathological cartilage they are located chaotically, differ in size and shape from each other. Above the tumor covers the perichondrium. The structure of the endochondrum is lobed. As it grows inside, foci of ossification of various sizes begin to form.
In medicine, a classification is used that is based on the prevalence of the pathological process. There are several forms of endochondrosis:
- Single. The formation of such a tumor occurs on the same bone
- multiple. In this case, the tumor affects several bone structures at the same time.
Clinical signs of the endodroma of the phalanx of the finger, thigh, or other bone structures are usually quite scarce. If the tumor has small dimensions, the symptoms of the development of pathology may not be present at all. Often, education is detected during the diagnosis entirely on another occasion.
If the size of the tumor is large, and it begins to press on the surrounding tissue, then the following symptoms appear:
- a weak chronic pain syndrome is noted;
- Moderate pain occurs during the night. The intensification of pain is an alarming symptom, as this may indicate that the endodontoma has degenerated into a malignant entity. In this case, you need to immediately consult a doctor for diagnosis and treatment of pathology. Otherwise, there is a high risk of developing dangerous complications;
- a swelling of the skin is noted at the site of the outgrowth localization
- Frequent bone fractures (including femoral fractures)
If a large tumor is located in the immediate vicinity of the joint, synovitis and arthralgia may develop. The functionality of the joint may be somewhat reduced.
In view of the fact that the symptoms of the development of pathology are minor, the patient himself rarely calls for medical help. Usually, the presence of a tumor is detected during a survey for another reason. The main diagnostic method is X-ray. The picture will clearly show the central location of the enlightenment in the form of a cloud in the bone. Inside it, dark areas are localized — these are the centers of calcification.
- A biopsy. This method is used if the doctor has a suspicion that this tumor is malignant.
Differential diagnosis is carried out with:
- bone cyst
- fibrotic dysplasia
Only the attending physician prescribes the treatment of the endodroma after a thorough diagnosis. The treatment plan is chosen strictly individually, taking into account the age of the patient, the general state of his health, the peculiarities of his pathology.
In the process of treating the outgrowth, both conservative and surgical methods are used. The choice of this or that method largely depends on the location of the tumor and also on its size.
- conservative treatment. Applies in the case of small tumor sizes and its location in short tubular bones. An important point is that the endodromes should not be prone to magnetization. If the patient does not have any significant symptoms, the outgrowth does not bother them, then in this case many doctors recommend simply to systematically come to X-ray to monitor possible tumor growth;
- Surgical treatment. This method is used in case the tumor grows rapidly and there is a possibility that it will degenerate into a malignant tumor. During the operation, the formed formation is completely scraped off. A special filler is placed in the formed cavity. As a rule, after such intervention, recurrences of pathology are not observed. Also an effective method of treatment is bone plastic. In this case, a site of healthy bone taken from another part of the patient’s body is transplanted to the affected area.
If before the endocrinea provoked a fracture of the bone, then in this case the treatment should be started only when the fracture site is completely overgrown. Only after this, the tumor is scraped or removed along with the affected bone.