Blood in the urine in men
Some men do not care too much about their health and they are unwilling to visit a doctor even if they have some complaints. However, blood in the urine is the signal to consult a doctor immediately. Blood in the urine in men may be caused by different diseases of various etiology. Almost all the diseases are successfully treated, providing however, that you ensure timely consultation with a specialist and will show a responsible attitude to the treatment. The urine of a healthy man is light yellow, urine volume is on average 1.2 – 1.5 l, urination is in norm and does not cause any discomfort or pain. If you have any deviations from the normal rates, visit a urologist.
Why is there blood in the urine
There are a hundred of causes of the urine with blood in men. Contrary to common belief, hematuria is not a specific symptom of the diseases of the urogenital system. Pathologies of other body systems may be responsible for blood in the urine.
The following types of hematuria are distinguished:
- Macrohematuria is detected visually, the urine is of red or pink color;
- Microhematuria is detected microscopically.
The most common factors provoking hematuria are the following:
- Traumatic injuries of the kidneys or urinary tract: blood appears in the urine due to mechanical influence on the tissues. In addition to hematuria, patients experience pain in the area of the affected organ and painful urination (urethra or bladder injuries);
- Urinary stone disease is characterized by the metabolic disorders accompanied by the deposits of insoluble salts within the urinary tract. A formed stone injures the renal parenchyma or the ureteral or bladder mucous membrane. Under the influence of certain factors, the stone begins to move along the urinary tract causing a severe pain (renal colic), fever and blood in the urine. The stones also prevent proper urine flow and often lead to inflammatory diseases of the urogenital system;
- Glomerulonephritis is the common complication of tonsillitis. The causative agent is streptococcus. It is manifested as an inflammation of the glomeruli (the part of the kidney that filters blood). Due to the increased permeability, red blood cells enter the urine. The typical symptoms of glomerulonephritis are hematuria, high blood pressure and swelling. If you noticed these symptoms, it is necessary to immediately visit a nephrologist or urologist. If left untreated, glomerulonephritis may lead to renal disease;
- Pyelonephritis is inflammation in the renal pelvis caused by bacterial infection. Most often the causative agent is E. coli. Blood in the urine in pyelonephritis occurs due to the urinary obstruction. It can be a stone or a tumor. Due to the infection, the neighboring tissues are injured and this explains why there is blood in the urine in men. Among the other symptoms of the disease are fever, general intoxication, and dull pain in the lower back;
- Cystitis: men are less frequently affected by this disease than women. However, hematuria is one of the specific symptoms of an inflammation in the urinary bladder. There are a few drops of blood during urination. Some other signs of the disease are pain, burning, urinary frequency. Improper treatment of cystitis can lead to the development of a chronic form of the disease;
- Urethritis is the inflammation of the mucous membrane of the urinary tract; this disease is accompanied by pain, burning and blood occurrence during urination;
- Tumors: blood in the urine in men can appear without any painful sensations. Very often a man does not even suspect that he has a neoplastic process in the urogenital system. He does not have any complaints of feeling unwell or about disorders in the urogenital system. Blood in the urine appears due to injuries of the vessels and tissues caused by a tumor. Sometimes the blood clots can appear;
- Circulatory system diseases: due to poor coagulation, even minor impact on the vessel wall can provoke bleeding;
- Pathologies of the renal vessels: thrombosis, varicose veins, and renal artery stenosis;
- Nutrition: eating a lot of brightly colored vegetables, for example, beetroot. Certain medications also can change the color of the urine.
Diagnosis hematuria in men
To identify the causes of hematuria in men, it is necessary to consult a urologist as soon as you noticed any symptoms. Only the results of a complete examination will enable a specialist to make an accurate diagnosis and detect the disease which led to the blood in the urine. The following diagnostic methods are used:
- Complete blood count for detecting the inflammation and excluding anemia;
- Common urine test: color, urine concentration, presence of salts, protein, blood formed elements, presence of urinary cast. This test helps to assess glomerular filtration rate;
- Daily urine;
- Nechiporenko test;
- Biochemical blood test: to examine kidney functions. The level of BUN, creatinine and sodium and potassium balance is detected. This test allows to evaluate renal function;
- Should kidney stone disease be suspected, a kidney, ureter and bladder X-ray is performed.
- Ultrasound examination in kidney stone disease is used to detect the size and structure of stones;
- To exclude pathologies of the renal arteries, duplex scanning is performed. It helps to assess the velocity of the blood flow in the kidneys and occlusion diameter;
- Upon suspecting inflectional pyelonephritis, cystitis and urethritis, a bacteriological examination is performed to detect the causative agent.
Treatment of diseases accompanied by hematuria
A therapy course is chosen individually according to the results of the examination. The therapy is aimed not at removing hematuria but at curing the pathology. It is important to strictly follow the recommendations of a urologist for a positive effect of the therapy. Depending the etiology, the following treatment approaches are distinguished:
- Antibacterial therapy in infectious inflammatory diseases of the urogenital system. While the inflammation process begins to subside, hematuria disappears;
- A combination therapy with the use of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs to eliminating the factor provoking the urinary obstruction in pyelonephritis. The stones are usually removed surgically;
- To treat urinary stone disease, a patient should follow a healthy diet and take metabolic medications. If necessary, the stones are removed;
- Glomerulonephritis requires a long-term treatment with cytostatics and glucocorticoids. It is very important to follow a proper diet and drugs dosage instructions. Usually, glomerulonephritis requires supportive therapy when the major symptoms will disappear;
- Tumors are removed depending on the results of biopsy and histology test (to exclude malignant tumors);
If you noticed blood in the urine, self-treatment is prohibited. If this condition is left untreated, it can lead to serious consequences for your health.