Bone cancer: symptoms and treatment
Bone cancer (or bone cancer, or bone tumor) is a general definition used for neoplasms of benign (with the possibility of degeneration) and malignant type. Bone cancer, the symptoms of which are manifested in different ways, depending on the specific type of cancer, can be accompanied by minor symptoms at an early stage, and this is often ignored by patients. It is noteworthy that bone cancer is diagnosed very rarely (about 1% of tumors), but due to the formation of a tumor in a particular organ or system, and metastasis to the bones, certain types of cancer refer specifically to bone cancer.
Bone cancer is one of the most rarely diagnosed types of cancer. Basically, this disease affects children and adolescents, much less often bone cancer is diagnosed in the elderly. The defeat of the bones is mainly due to metastasis in cancer in other areas (for breast cancer, lungs, etc.). Depending on this disease is designated as primary or secondary. Primary bone cancer develops independently. Secondary bone cancer (or, as it is still called, metastatic bone cancer) develops in the previously mentioned variant, that is, when cancer cells from other areas get into the bone tissue.
Let’s remind our readers what metastases are. Metastasis is a process in which secondary foci of tumor growth, that is, metastasis, begin to form. Metastases begin to form at the expense of the proliferation of cells to other areas and tissues from the primary (primary) location of the tumor. It is on the basis of such a process as metastasis that there are reasons to indicate the malignant nature of the tumor disease. At the same time, metastasis excludes the possibility of curing the existing tumor without removing the metastases themselves. Often, it is due to the defeat of a number of internal organs (brain, liver, etc.), caused by metastases, tumors become incurable.
The disease, which we will stop today, develops when the cells of the bone begin to uncontrollably and randomly divide. Cancer cells grow directly in the bone tissue. With the continuation of uncontrolled division, that is, when there is no need for new cells, and they all continue to divide, an outgrowth is formed — this is a tumor. Also, the cells of the neoplasm can sprout into the tissues in their immediate vicinity, as well as spread to other parts of the body. Such a picture corresponds to a malignant tumor formation, but if the tumor is benign, then its distribution to other organs does not occur.
Depending on the characteristics of the lesion, identify the appropriate types of bone cancer, consider them below.
Bone cancer: types and features
As we have already indicated, bone tumors can be benign and malignant. In the enumeration of options, we will not dwell on the characteristic symptomatology, but only highlight the inherent characteristics of them for a general view.
Benign tumors include:
- Osteoma. In this case, the tumor, as already indicated, is benign. Characteristic for it is a favorable current, it grows very slowly, is not prone to malignancy, does not grow into nearby tissues, is not prone to metastasis. It is mainly diagnosed in children and young people (the general age group is patients 5-20 years of age). Osteomas have definite forms of forms, their difference being the localization and structure. In particular, these are hyperplastic osteomas formed on the basis of bone tissue (osteoid osteomas, osteomas), as well as heteroplastic osteomas formed on the basis of connective tissue (osteophytes). In general, tumors from the outer bone surface are localized with localization in the region of flat bones of the skull, on the humerus, femoral and tibial bones, on the walls of the frontal, latticed, maxillary and sphenoid sinuses. Also, vertebral bodies can be affected. As a rule, osteomas are single in nature, but exceptions are allowed. As such, Gardner’s disease , accompanied by the formation of multiple tumor formations, and congenital osteomas with damage to the skull bones are considered. The latter develop due to a disruption in the development of mesenchymal tissues, manifested in combination with a number of other vices. Osteomas themselves are not painful, their presence is not accompanied by any symptomatology, although until the anatomical formations begin to squash — this can already cause a variety of symptoms, ranging from visual impairment to the development of epileptic seizures. Treatment of osteoma is made only by surgical intervention.
- Osteoid-osteoma (it’s also an osteoid osteoma). This new growth is mostly single, its diameter does not exceed 1 centimeter. Its contours are clear, the area of localization is possible in any of the bones of the skeleton (exceptions are the sternum and the bone of the skull). Based on statistics on this type of tumors, they are diagnosed on average in 11% of cases of formation of benign tumor formations. In most cases, the femur is affected, followed by the tibia, and finally the humerus. Difficulties in diagnosis arise due to the small size of tumor formation, and also because of the absence of specific symptoms. Because of this, often treatment of osteoid osteoma is carried out on the basis of an incorrect diagnosis, and, accordingly, unsuccessfully. The only method of treatment is surgical intervention, its volume is determined based on the localization area and on the specific form of the tumor process. Such education after removal is usually not subject to recurrence.
- Osteochondroma (it is also an ectostosis). In this case, we are talking about a tumor formation that manifests itself as an outgrowth on the basis of bone tissue, which, as it were, is covered with a «cap», this time based on cartilaginous tissue. Osteochondroma has the appearance of a colorless mass in its structure. It is mainly found in patients aged 10-25 years. An analogous type of neoplasm, which can be designated as an osteophyte, according to the peculiarities of pathogenesis (the features of the course of the disease that occurs during it) with the tumor formation under consideration has nothing in common. Osteophytes form near the affected joint with a disease such as osteoarthritis. In other words, it is incorrect to attach the osteophyte to the osteochondrosis, they are not synonyms. With regard to the localization areas, the picture can be different here, although in about half the cases the lesion of the lower part of the femur is diagnosed, the upper part of the tibia is damaged and the upper humerus is affected. Detection is allowed in other bones, except for the facial bones of the skull. The feet, hands and spine, meanwhile, are rarely affected. The diameter of the tumor can reach 14 centimeters, with the maximum period of observation of patients, there were no cases of malignancy of the process, the probability of such an option, meanwhile, is 1-2%. Recurrence is also possible, mainly in the first 26 months after surgical removal of the tumor. A similar option is possible with incomplete removal of the tumor or with an incomplete removal of its cap. Treatment of osteochondrosis is carried out only with a radical effect, that is, with surgical removal of the tumor.
- Chondroma. Chondroma can also be referred to as a cartilaginous tumor or cartilaginous, which, as one can understand, determines the features of the structure of such a tumor — it consists of a cartilaginous tissue. Based on the localization of bone, the endocrine and echondroma are isolated. Enchondroma is formed directly in the bone, which is accompanied by the practical extension of the latter with the growth of the tumor. The echondroma grows from the bone, towards the soft tissues, that is, with the passage beyond the bone to which it refers. Chondromas in their localization more often affect the bones of feet and brushes, somewhat less often the damage is caused by flat and long tubular bones. The symptomatology is meager, the pain, as one of the symptoms, appears mainly as a result of trauma or as a result of pathological fractures caused by the increase in the presence of the tumor process in the bone (which is actual for localization in the distal limb region). Treatment of the chondromus requires surgical intervention, within which the tumor is removed and the plastic of the defect is performed. The malignancy of the process occurs mainly with large sizes of tumors concentrated in the pelvic bones and in long tubular bones. In general, the outlook is favorable.
- Chondromixoid fibroid. This type of tumor formation is rare, it is benign. In general, long tubular bones are subject to damage, although other bones of the skeleton are also not excluded. As a rule, the course of the disease is characterized as favorable, although the possibility of recurrence and even malignancy is allowed. The manifestation of the chondromixoid chondroma is accompanied by the appearance of intensifying pain sensations, which are noted where the tumor actually appeared. With severe variant of the course, muscle atrophy can develop in the area of the affected limb, and also the mobility of the joint located close to the tumor can be limited. Often, the tumor is found in the tibia, in the calcaneus. It can affect the pelvic, humerus, ribs, bones of the skull, sternum, vertebrae. The most aggressive growth of the tumor is when the spine is affected. Chondromixoid fibroids, the symptoms of which are detected with equal frequency in both men and women, develops in patients of any age. In particular, severe symptomatology and the fastest growth of the tumor are detected in children. In approximately 15% of cases, the course is characterized by the absence of symptoms per se, and tumor detection occurs accidentally during an x-ray examination in the direction of an orthopedist or traumatologist.
- Chondroblastoma. This type of tumor formation is similarly benign, but for this statement there are certain digressions. To begin with, let us designate that such a tumor is formed due to cartilaginous tissue, focusing in the epiphyseal region of tubular long bones. The distal epiphysis of the femur is in the first place in the part of the lesion, the proximal epiphysis with the lesion of the tibia is on the second, and finally, the proximal epiphysis with defeat of the humerus is in third place. Chondroblastomas are more rarely detected in the proximal epiphysis of the femur, in the bones of the foot and pelvis. In practice, there are also cases of the appearance of chondroblasts from the ribs, sternum, spine, scapula, collarbone, patella, wrist bones, phalanges of the fingers, and also in the cranial and lower jaw. Most often this disease is diagnosed at the age after 20 years, somewhat less often — in adulthood and aged elderly. According to different age groups there are data on chondroblastoma, indicating that it is diagnosed on average in 1-4% of cases of possible benign tumor formations. There is also a predisposition of men to this type of tumor — they diagnose an average of 2 times more often than, respectively, in women. It should be noted that chondroblastoma can be not only benign, but also malignant. A benign chondroblastoma can manifest itself either in a typical form or in a mixed form. There are also some varieties of both types of tumors. Thus, benign chondroblastomas can manifest themselves in the following types: cystic chondroblastoma, chondromic chondroblastoma, chondroblastoma with chondromixoid fibroids or with osteoblastoklastoma. In turn, malignant chondroblastomas can manifest themselves in such varieties: light-celled chondrosarcoma, primarily malignant chondroblastoma or chondroblastoma, malignant (in the latter variant, it can also be transformed into chondrosarcoma or osteogenic chondroblastic sarcoma). Malignant forms of the chondroblast are diagnosed in about 7% of the cases by the chondroblast as a whole (i.e., benign including). Fertilization mainly occurs against the background of several preceding benign forms of the disease, which is caused, in part, by its incomplete surgical removal.
- A giant cell tumor (it is also an osteoblastoclastoma or an osteoclastoma). Such a tumor of bones is diagnosed most often. Special differences in the predisposition of men or women to this disease is not observed, because you can add that it is equally affected by both sexes. Also hereditary predisposition is relevant. As for the age predisposition, the disease as a whole can be detected from 1 year to 70 years, but in more than half of the cases of giant cell tumor detection, the age of 20-30 years can be designated as the peak of the age incidence. At the same time, it can be added that in children under the age of twelve, the tumor is extremely rare. Basically, the tumor formation is solitary, in some cases its double concentration is revealed and mainly in the bones located near it. Longer tubular bones are more often affected, which is true in 74% of cases, small and flat bones are less likely to be affected. The localization of the tumor in long tubular bones is noted in the area of the epimetaphyseal section. There is no germination in the epiphyseal and in the articular cartilage. In 0.2% of cases, which is quite rare, localization is diaphyseal. A benign tumor can be transformed into a malignant tumor, in addition, the osteoblastoklastoma can be primarily malignant. Malignant osteoblastoklastomy are localized similarly to benign tumoral formations of this type. Bone tissue is subject to destructive processes. The tumor includes giant multinucleate cells, as well as unicellular formations, while giant cells play not so significant a role in the development of tumor formation in comparison with unicellular ones. The cellular origin of tumor formation is generally unknown. The clinical course is characterized by its own slowness, the pain manifests itself late and has a moderate character. Bony swelling and its deformation are noted in the late stages of the disease course. The process of metastasis is accompanied by the spread to both surrounding veins, and to distant veins, for example, to the lungs. Here they have a benign structure, but they also have the ability to produce bone tissue. Osteoblastoklastoma is formed in such areas, which are designated as zones of bone growth. In particular, it is the neck and the head of the femur, a large or small vertex of the femur. Impinge the tumor can the articular end of the bone completely, thereby contributing to its swelling or destruction of the cortical layer, after which it extends beyond the affected bone. In some cases, the destruction of the bone by the tumor occurs unevenly, the clinical and radiological features, when considered, indicate either the cellular-trabecular structure or completely the complete disappearance of the bone under the influence of the growth of the tumor process — in this case it is a lytic form. Remarkably, the lytic form develops in pregnant women, and the process of tumor development is so rapid and bright in its clinical picture that this form is diagnosed as malignant. Treatment in this case provides for the termination of pregnancy, although in practice there have been cases of detection of the tumor in the final months of pregnancy, in connection with which the treatment began after the birth. If before this tumor was considered to be benign, now the view about it has been revised, taking into account its possible primary malignant character and propensity to malignancy. A number of questions on it, in addition, remains unclear.
- Angioma. In this case, it is a generalized definition for a group of vascular tumors that are formed on the basis of lymphatic or blood vessels. The localization of such neoplasms can be superficial (mucous membranes or skin are affected), in addition, they can be located in the internal organs and muscles. The concomitant manifestations of these manifestations are bleeding, which, in turn, can manifest themselves in varying degrees of intrinsic intensity. The removal of such neoplasms is carried out through various methods (X-ray therapy, sclerotherapy, cryotherapy), a possible measure is also a surgical intervention. Various organs and tissues are affected, and angiomas can be either single or multiple. The dimensions can also be different. If the case of hemangioma is considered (anomaly with damage to the blood vessels), neoplasms have a blue-red color, and if lymphangiomas (anomaly with lymphatic vessels damage), then such neoplasms are colorless. Basically, angiomas are found in children — they account for about 80% of cases of congenital neoplasms. Also, a predisposition to progression should be indicated, and sometimes — to a very rapid one. Basically, angiomas are found in the region of the upper half of the trunk, on the neck and on the head. Often eye, eyelids, lungs, pharynx, external genitalia, bones, liver, etc. are affected less often. Basically, angiomas are congenital, and their increase is caused by the proliferation of blood vessels in the tumor itself. These vessels grow into the surrounding tissues, thereby destroying them, which is analogous to the growth of malignant tumors.
- Miksom. The mixoma is an intracavitary tumor that afflicts the heart. This tumor is benign, and of all the varieties of this type of tumors, it is detected in 50% of cases in adult patients, in 15% in patients of the childhood group. In 75% of cases, the localization of tumor formation occurs in the left atrium, in 20% of cases — on the right. A small part of the cases falls on the valve apparatus or on the ventricles. The main age of patients is 40-60 years. Most often, myxoma heart is diagnosed in women than in men. The tumor itself is formed on the basis of connective tissue, and it contains a significant amount of mucus. In addition to heart damage, myxoma can also be detected on the limbs, in the field of intermuscular tissue, fascia and aponeuroses. Nervous trunks and the bladder are more rarely affected.
- Fibroma. Fibroma is a benign mature tumor based on connective tissue. It can be formed in any part of the body. Can be diffuse or limited. The course of the disease and its signs depend directly on where the fibroid is located, and also on the characteristics of the rate of growth. The possibility of transformation from benign to malignant education is allowed. The fibroids are treated in an operative way.
- Eosinophilic granuloma. This disease is designated as a pathology of an unclear nature, the course of which is characterized by the formation of granulomas (infiltrates) in the bones, with the presence of a significant amount of eosinophilic leukocytes in the granule. Some authors believe that the disease is of an infectious-allergic nature, some that it is associated with trauma, some — with helminthic tissue invasion. The disease is diagnosed quite rarely, and mainly in preschool children. The main feature of the disease under consideration is that it produces single or multiple tumor sites that damage tubular and flat bones. The most common lesions are vertebrae, femurs, bones of the cranial vault and pelvic bone.
Malignant tumors include:
- Ewing’s sarcoma. This type of tumor is malignant, with the defeat of the bone skeleton, mainly — the lower part of the long tubular bones, collarbone, spine, pelvis, ribs, scapula. Ewing’s sarcoma occupies the second place in terms of the frequency of diagnosis in children, in general it occurs in children under 5 years old, and also in adults — from 30 years. The main peak of morbidity is the age from 10 to 15 years. The causes of Ewing’s sarcoma are still unknown at this time, but 40% of cases of this disease with previous trauma are found. In rare cases, Ewing’s sarcoma develops as an extra-osseous pathology, which is accompanied by the destruction of soft tissues, in the main, as already noted, the bones are affected. The disease can be localized and metastatic in stages of development. The localized stage of Ewing’s sarcoma determines for her the possibility of spreading from the primary lesion to soft tissues that are in her immediate vicinity, with no distant metastasis observed. As for the metastatic stage, the tumor can spread to other parts of the patient’s body (bone marrow, bones, lungs, liver, CNS, etc.). In general, Ewing’s sarcoma is the most aggressive of malignant tumoral formations. Remarkably, in about 90% of the cases when any therapeutic measures are initiated for patients, metastasis is already important (the main areas are the bones, lungs and bone marrow).
- Osteogenic sarcoma. Osteogenic sarcoma is a tumor whose malignant cells are formed by bone tissue, while they also produce this tissue. Osteogenic sarcoma can be sclerotic (osteoplastic), osteolytic or mixed, which is determined radiologically. As is understandable, such a sarcoma arises directly from bone elements, and it is also characterized by rapid progression and early metastasis. Osteogenic sarcoma is detected at any age, but in approximately 65% of cases the peak incidence falls on the age of 10 to 30 years. It is also noted that basically the sarcoma develops towards the end of puberty. As for the sexual predisposition, here it is also relevant: men fall almost twice as often as women. The predominant environment for the localization of osteogenic sarcoma is long tubular bones, and in about 1 out of 5 cases of osteogenic sarcomas, their localization occurs on short or flat bones. Up to 6 times more often the bones of the lower limbs are affected in comparison with the bones of the upper limbs, with about 80% of the total number of tumors hitting the lower limbs, concentrating in the knee joint. Also often affects the hip, humerus and tibia, fibular and pelvic bones, ulna and shoulder girdle. In the radial bone, where the giant cell tumor appears frequently, in rare cases it is accompanied by the growth of osteogenic sarcoma. Osteogenic sarcoma almost never grows out of the patella. The skull is affected mainly by children, in addition to this, this lesion is also relevant for elderly patients, but here it already acts as a complication of osteodystrophy. The development of a tumor in some cases is associated with the rapid growth of bone. In children who have osteogenic sarcoma, in most cases the growth is higher (if equal to the total age norm), the disease itself affects those parts of the skeleton that grow fastest. In general, there is also a link with trauma as a predisposing factor to the development of sarcoma, but trauma is more a factor that allows to detect it almost randomly during an X-ray study.
- Parostal sarcoma. This type of sarcoma is one of the variants of varieties of osteosarcoma. The frequency of its detection on average is 4% of the total number of osteosarcomas, that is, the tumor is quite rare. It develops directly on the bone surface, its feature is a longer and, at the same time, less malignant in nature flow. A typical localization environment is the area of the knee (posterior surface of the femur or tibia), accounting for about 70% of cases of this type of sarcoma. In rare cases, the skull, pelvic and spine bones, scapula, bones of the foot and hand (literally single cases) are affected. This tumor has a bone consistency, it focuses outside the bone, but it binds to the underlying bone and the period. In frequent cases, it is as if in a capsule, which, however, does not exclude the possibility of its germination in the nearby muscles.
- Chondrosarcoma. This tumor is one of the most common tumor pathologies affecting the skeleton. It is based on cartilaginous tissue. In general, chondrosarcoma develops in flat bones, although it is also possible to detect such a tumor in tubular bones. There are several variants of scenarios, according to which such tumors can progress. So, it can be a relatively favorable scenario of progression, in which growth of tumor formation is delayed, and metastasis occurs at later stages, or unfavorable, in which tumor growth will be rapid and metastasis will start early. These are two basic options for which certain deviations are possible when considering the overall picture of the disease in each specific case. Treatment with chondrosarcom is surgical intervention, the prognosis is determined by the specific variant of the course of the disease, as well as the possibilities for a relatively radical impact on the tumor. Basically, this shoulder has a shoulder belt, pelvic bones, femoral and humeral bones, ribs. On average, in 60% of cases, the disease is diagnosed in patients of the middle and old age group (age from 40 to 60 years). Meanwhile, this does not exclude the possibility of identifying chondrosarcoma in patients of other ages. Thus, the statistics indicate that the earliest case of this pathology was fixed at 6 years, while the latest one was at 90. Concerning sexual predisposition, it can be indicated that men are twice as likely to face this disease as compared to women. Chondrosarcoma can correspond to several degrees of malignancy of the process. Thus, 1 degree malignancy with chondrosarcom is accompanied by the predominant presence of a chondroid tissue in the tumor, the latter, in turn, contains chondrocytes, which contain small dense nuclei. In small so far there are multi-nuclear cells, there are no mitosis figures. For 2 degree , the predominant myxoid intercellular substance is more typical, according to the number of cells more than within the first degree. The accumulation of cells occurs along the periphery of the lobules. The nuclei are enlarged, the mitosis figures are present in a single quantity, there are sites of destruction, that is, areas of necrosis. And, finally, 3 degree, it is characterized by a mixoidal composition of the intercellular substance, the arrangement of cells in it occurs in strands or groups. The presence of stellate or irregularly shaped cells in a significant volume is determined. Multi-nuclear cells become many, many and cells, in which the nuclei are enlarged. There are figures of mitosis, areas of necrosis are extensive. If we do not go into detailed consideration of this kind of changes, but proceed only from knowing the degree of chondrosarcom, then we can say that the higher the degree, the higher the probability of early metastasis, and the development of relapse after surgical removal of tumor formation. Li >
- Chordoma. This type of neoplasm can be referred to as a benign tumor, and as a malignant tumor. Meanwhile, the benign nature of such a neoplasm is controversial. Given the fact that the growth of tumor formation is slow, and metastasis is rarely observed outside of it, it is considered to be benign. However, due to the fact that the tumor is in a specific area, it is its location that causes the development of complications. The tumor itself can subsequently recur, that is, resume its development after a seemingly complete recovery of the patient. It is for this reason, in accordance with the principles on which the international classification of neoplasms is based, it is more appropriate to classify it as a malignant tumor. Chordoma is rarely diagnosed (approximately 1% of cases of tumor formations that affect bone structures), it is formed on the basis of the remains of the embryonic chord. Chordoma of the sacrum predominates, in this case — in patients 40-60 years old, more often in men. If a tumor is diagnosed in young people, it is usually a swelling in the base of the skull. It is these areas that are the main ones in the defeat of chordoma. Tumors are divided into the following forms: chondroid chordoma, undifferentiated chordoma and chordoma are common. The least aggressiveness is characterized by chondroid chordoma. The undifferentiated is predisposed to metastasis and the most aggressive of these forms. Sometimes there are difficulties with the definition of a specific type of tumor, in this case it is often believed that chondrosarcoma was formed (due to the generality of localization and structure). Here we are talking about an undifferentiated tumor, and, of course, the need for differentiation of a specific neoplasm. If it is really about chondrosarcoma, and not chordoma, then there are reasons for a favorable prognosis for it. The fact is that chondrosarcoma is more sensitive to treatment with radiation therapy, which is the basis for such statements. Treatment of chordoma requires surgical intervention, its volumes are determined individually, depending on the nature of the pathological process.
Bone cancer: risk factors
Despite the fact that there is no single-valued cause of bone cancer at the moment, this does not exclude the identification of several factors that are predisposing to the development of this disease. In particular, this is:
- the presence of such a benign disease affecting the bones as Paget’s disease
- heredity (the presence of the nearest blood relatives of the disease in the past)
- bone trauma (again, as a factor contributing to the development of cancer, trauma can not be considered, but it is precisely with trauma, as already indicated, the disease is detected).
Certain predisposing factors can also be identified for some individual types of bone cancer.
- Osteosarcoma : male sex, age 10 to 30 years, bone marrow transplantation, retinoblastoma (eye cancer, rare disease), hereditary cancer syndrome.
- Chondrosarcoma: exostosis in a significant amount (an inherited type of disease that results in bones being affected by characteristic cones), age 20 years
In other types of cancer, a certain factor in the development of cancer is a certain age group, which, however, can not be uniquely determined in view of the variability of the options.
Bone cancer: symptoms
Clinic manifestations of the disease is based on the following symptoms:
- Pain. Pain, as you can understand, if it does, then in the place where the tumor was formed. The pain can be constant, its strengthening occurs during stresses and movements, at night (the period of muscle relaxation).
- Puffiness. Puffiness similarly occurs in the area where the tumor is located, in particular, the swelling around it. It is noticeable during the late stage of the course of the disease, that is, when the tumor has already reached considerable dimensions. In some cases, edema may not be detected during examination and palpation.
- Difficulty of movements. Being in close proximity to the affected joint, the tumor, as it grows, leads to certain difficulties in its work. Because of this, limb movement can be limited. If the leg joints were affected, this can cause numbness of the limbs, tingling in them, lameness
- Deformation of the affected limb or body.
- Weight loss, sweating, fever, lethargy is a symptom of a general «failure» of the body, whether it is against the background of cancer, or against the background of diseases of any other type.
The listed symptoms, as you can see, are relevant for many diseases, and it concerns not only the last point. Meanwhile, if the duration of the manifestation of such a symptom as pain in the limbs is more than two weeks, it is necessary to consult a doctor for a comprehensive examination for a specific cause.
Bone and pelvis cancer
It is rare in practice to encounter primary tumors with bone tissue damage to the pelvic bones. With the same frequency in this case, osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma are identified. Sarcoma of the hip joint is even more rarely diagnosed. Similarly to many types of cancer, these pathologies are more often diagnosed in men (in comparison with women).
Let us dwell on the symptoms inherent in such a disease as cancers of the pelvic bones:
- Dull pain, arising in the pelvis and in the buttock, in some cases, such pain can be accompanied by a short-term increase in body temperature.
- The increase in pain, noted in particular during exercise and while walking, is a symptom of progressive progression of tumor pathology
- Bulge, swelling, also detected in the future, with the progression of the disease when a tumor of considerable size is acquired. The skin in the lesion is markedly thinned, which makes it possible to notice the vascular pattern.
- Spread of pain to the spine, perineum, to the groin, thigh, etc. This symptom is relevant for the late stages of the pathological process, when the nerves and vessels are compressed by tumor formation.
- Limited mobility of the affected joint.
The next part of the symptomatology on which we will stop corresponds to a type of disease like leg cancer, its symptoms are diagnosed with the same frequency in both sexes, that is, in men and women.
- Pain in the legs, increased pain during exercise
- Restriction of mobility of the affected limb
- Appearance of edema on the skin, protrusion
- Deformation of the affected limb
- General symptoms of malaise (temperature, lethargy, weight loss, weakness, etc.)
Also, regardless of the type of cancer, it is possible to designate a symptom such as fractures of the bones, which is more important for later stages of cancer, when the tumor leads to a significant damage to the joint to which it is directly related.
Diagnosis and treatment
Often, which was also highlighted by us in the article, the cancer is detected by chance, with no symptoms and with an X-ray examination, for example, for the presence of trauma. In the future, the doctor can appoint a number of examinations, among them the following can be singled out:
- blood test (allows to determine the level of actual alkaline enzymatic phosphatase, if it is increased, then there is reason to assume a bone tumor, which, however, is also true within the period of growth of a completely healthy child)
- X-ray examination
- Scanning of the bones of the skeleton (in this case, a test is used to determine where the tumor is located, to carry out the introduction of radioactive material into the bloodstream absorbed by bone tissue, after which special features of its effect are monitored using a special scanner) ;
- CT, MRI
- bone marrow biopsy
As for the issue of cancer treatment, it is used differently in each case of this disease, its principles are determined on the basis of the variety, and also on the basis of the stage of cancer, the area of localization of tumor formation, the patient’s state of health, the presence of metastases and other Criteria. Basically, surgical removal of the tumor is indicated, although treatment methods such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy can be used — mostly in the treatment they are a supplement to surgical intervention.
If you have symptoms that may indicate cancer, you should consult an orthopedist or an oncologist.