Brain Injury: Symptoms and Treatment


A brain contusion is a traumatic injury of the meninges, which occurs due to the action of a certain mechanical force. Often, with such injuries, individual lobes — temporal and frontal lobe — suffer.

Among all head injuries, the brain contusion takes 10%. Pathology is a closed cranial injury with damage to the brain tissue. There are such injuries due to various reasons, for example, in road accidents, when falling from a high altitude, with sports injuries, etc. Often this pathology occurs in children who can be injured in the process of playing.

Sometimes a person can get such an injury during an epileptic fit, when he does not control the movements of his body, so epilepsy in this case is a predisposing factor.

Symptoms and periods

The symptomatology of the contusion of brain tissue, regardless of the causes of the pathology, has certain characteristics. However, the severity of symptoms depends on the period of the course of the disease. In particular, three periods are distinguished:


  • acute, in which the symptoms are clearly expressed and occur with deterioration of the human condition
  • intermediate, when the main symptomatology subsides
  • a period of residual events in which the symptoms of a pathology such as a brain contusion disappear, but the effects of trauma are felt by different clinical manifestations.

If we talk about the symptoms of a brain contusion, then we should single out such of them:


  1. dizziness and headache
  2. the appearance of nausea and vomiting, after which a person does not get better;
  3. amnesia
  4. Complexity in orientation on the terrain and in time
  5. different degrees of loss of consciousness
  6. change pupil size (possible appearance of strabismus)
  7. impaired sensitivity and motor function disorder.

In addition, often people with such traumas develop focal neurological symptoms of a brain contusion, in particular, there may be an increased tone of the occipital muscles. And still can be observed bleeding from the nasal cavity and even ear bleeding.

It should be said that a brain contusion can pass without a trace, and may leave behind certain consequences in the form of headaches or disorders of neurological functions. In addition, in severe cases, such a trauma can lead to the death of a person. Restoration, however, depends directly on the organism of each individual person and on his ability to recover from severe shocks.

Degrees

Depending on the severity of the damage to the brain tissue, three degrees of the disease are identified. The brain contusion of an easy degree is characterized by insignificant symptomatology and in its current is similar to the usual concussion of the brain, in which a person may have headaches, dizziness, sometimes nausea with vomiting. With such a lesion, recovery occurs quickly enough and the trauma does not leave consequences after itself. This degree of lesion is common in children.

The average degree of damage to the brain tissue is characterized by complete or partial loss of consciousness, vomiting that does not bring relief, as well as disorders of the internal organs, in particular the respiratory and cardiovascular system.

A serious brain contusion is the most dangerous pathological condition that poses a threat to the life of the patient. Characterized by severe symptoms, coma, disruption of breathing, swallowing, cardiovascular system disorders and even the appearance of convulsive syndrome.





Treatment features

Diagnosis of this lesion of the brain tissue is carried out by computer or magnetic resonance imaging, on which it is possible to see all affected tissues and determine the scale of traumatic injury.

It is necessary to say that with bruises of this kind, people need first aid, which is to hold a person with artificial respiration. Next, you need to call an ambulance, and put the person on their side (to avoid aspiration vomit). If a person is conscious, he must be reassured and try to immobilize before the arrival of physicians.

Treatment of a pathology such as a brain contusion is carried out in a hospital environment under the close supervision of doctors. Bed rest is indicated for lesions of any degree, but its duration may differ depending on the severity of the lesions. So, an easy degree involves finding a person in bed for a week — during this time the symptomatology disappears. At an average degree, bed rest is prolonged to several weeks, and people are prescribed medications that normalize intracranial pressure, as well as drugs that prevent the development of cerebral edema.

In severe cases, resuscitation is shown, which consists in the normalization of respiratory function and cardiac activity. Most often resort to such procedure as intubation of the trachea and even to mechanical ventilation.

In the case when traumatic injuries are the crushing of the brain tissue, surgical removal of the affected areas and restoration of the integrity of the organ are necessary. Unfortunately, even with such measures, the probability of a lethal outcome is quite high and amounts to 40-50%.

If we talk about the consequences of a brain injury, then they are usually absent from a mild injury, however, from a patient, in order to avoid complications, it is necessary to strictly follow the medical recommendations that will allow him to fully recover.

In the case of bruises of moderate severity, there may be some consequences, in the form of periodic headaches, mental disorders (memory loss) and other disorders. But the most serious consequences of a brain contusion are observed in patients with a severe degree of defeat — in the majority of cases a person remains for life a disabled person suffering from significant motor, speech and other disorders.