Cervical Ectopy: Symptoms and Treatment

Cervical ectopy is an ailment that develops in women with the movement of the cylindrical epithelium to the part of the uterus that is localized directly from the vagina. Normally, the cylindrical epithelium lays the cervical canal, and only when it is influenced by various unfavorable etiological factors of the endogenous and exogenous type, it can begin to grow.

You can detect such a disease through a gynecological examination. Visually the area of ​​the expanded cylindrical epithelium will look like a large red spot on the neck, which does not have clear boundaries. It is worth noting the fact that in the case of progression of cervical ectopia, the epithelium of the neck of the genital organ will not be damaged.

In the medical literature, you can often find other names of this pathological process, such as:

  • glandular muscle hyperplasia
  • endocervicosis;
  • false erosion;
  • pseudo-erosion.

Medical statistics for today is such that ectopia of the cervix is ​​diagnosed in 40% of the total number of women. It is also worth noting that 11% have a congenital form of this pathology. Most often, the disease is detected in women who have not yet reached the age of thirty — this is the main risk group. Many believe that ectopia of the cervix is ​​a precancerous condition. In fact, this is not true. This pathology does not pass into oncology on its own, but against its background the chance of progression of the malignant process increases several times.

Etiological factors

Clinicians identify two groups of causes that can trigger the progression of cervical ectopy — endogenous and exogenous.

Endogenous factors:

  1. hereditary predisposition of the woman to the development of such pathology
  2. Breaking the hormonal background. In this case, the cause of ectopy may be infertility, various disorders in the cycle, as well as the onset of menstruation before the age of twelve;
  3. Decreased reactivity of the body. Often ectopia of the cervix develops against the background of already existing in the body of a woman’s ailments of chronic type;
  4. harmful professional activity that adversely affects the immune status.

Exogenous factors:

  • penetration of various bacterial or viral agents into the body of a woman. Most often the ectopia of the cervix progresses in the representatives of the beautiful half of humanity who started to have sex early, often changed partners, or who had an STD in their anamnesis
  • traumatization of the genital organs, both internal and external. In this case, the proliferation of the cylindrical epithelium can be caused by trauma during labor or during abortion, as well as in the case of various barrier or chemical spermicides.


In total, clinicians distinguish five varieties of the disease, which can occur in women at different periods of life. They all have their own characteristics, as well as the nature of manifestation:

  1. congenital. In this case, ectopia is usually diagnosed in women who have only recently started to have sex;
  2. Acquired. Ectopy is diagnosed in women who have previously had a gynecological examination and no signs of pathology were found
  3. uncomplicated. The proliferation of the epithelium is not accompanied by any symptom;
  4. complicated form. There is a one-stage growth of the epithelium and the course of inflammatory or precancerous processes
  5. relapsing. The development of this form is indicated if the pathological process arose again after cervical ectopy was treated.


Usually, the ectopy does not manifest itself at all. It can be accidentally detected when a woman goes through a survey for another reason. Symptoms can manifest only if the ectopy occurs simultaneously with precancerous and inflammatory processes in the genital organs. In this case, the following clinic appears:

  • increase in the amount of leucorrhoea. They have a mucous structure, as well as a white or yellowish color. Usually on such a symptom a woman does not pay much attention, therefore she does not consult a doctor
  • pain during sexual intercourse with your partner. Often, after sex, a discharge is observed in the woman with an admixture of blood;
  • violation of the cycle of menstruation. Usually this is manifested by the irregularity of menstruation, as well as by severe pain during it;
  • Infertility appears on the background of cervical ectopy.

Ectopia and Pregnancy

Ectopia can be diagnosed during pregnancy. Some women believe that this is not a dangerous condition, but in fact everything is exactly the opposite. It is important to understand that often an ailment manifests itself due to the presence of inflammatory or infectious pathologies that can aggravate the course of pregnancy. The reason is that from the vagina, through the affected neck, infectious agents can penetrate directly into the genital organ, which will cause infection of the amniotic fluid and the fetus itself. Ectopia in pregnancy is fraught with the following consequences:

  1. abortion;
  2. fetal death
  3. premature birth
  4. Infection of the child while passing through the mother’s birth canal
  5. child development delay
  6. formation of various defects in the fetus.

It is also worth noting that the presence of ectopia during pregnancy several times increases the likelihood of rupture.

Pregnancy occurs with permanent restructuring of the hormonal background, and as already mentioned above, the epithelium can grow and due to a malfunction in the hormonal background. From this we can conclude that pregnancy, in some way, increases the likelihood of aggravation of the course of the disease. Often this leads to dysplasia and precancerous pathologies.

It is important during pregnancy to constantly monitor the situation — to regularly visit specialists in order to dull the progression of pathology and not to start it. Also during pregnancy, it is strictly forbidden to engage in self-medication.


Diagnostics includes the following procedures and activities:

  • An analysis of the patient’s complaints. A woman can complain about something only if the growth of the epithelium occurs in a complicated form;
  • life history assessment
  • the doctor must necessarily inquire about a woman’s menstrual cycle — when the duration, duration, and other data begin to flow,
  • the doctor specifies whether the woman had previous gynecological pathologies
  • Inspection;
  • Colposcopy
  • cytology of the cervical smear
  • Cervical biopsy with sites of altered epithelium
  • blood must be donated to clarify the level of sex hormones

Healing measures

If the uncomplicated form of the disease is diagnosed, then it does not require treatment. A woman should only visit her gynecologist on a regular basis so that he can monitor the course of the pathology.

Therapy of a complicated form:

  1. hormonal background correction;
  2. cryodestruction or coagulation of the affected area
  3. taking anti-inflammatory drugs

  4. drugs whose action is aimed at strengthening the whole organism.