Chondroma: Symptoms and Treatment
Chondroma is a benign tumor that consists of mature cartilaginous cells. This formation is characterized by a slow growth and no significant symptomatology. The first signs of chondroma usually appear if the formation is quite large and begins to press on surrounding tissues and blood vessels. If the joint is near, the presence of a tumor can lead to a disruption of its mobility.
The course of the disease, as a rule, is favorable. But many doctors consider this disease potentially dangerous, since the tumor can be regenerated from a benign to malignant.
More often the chondroma affects the bones (sternum, clavicle, phalanges of fingers, etc.), but also it can develop in soft tissues and cartilages (ear chondrome, larynx). In adults, the most common chondroma is formed on the tubular bones of the hand, more rarely on the sternum, femur and in the knee joint region. The affected parts of the bone tend to knot deformation. If the chondroma is located on a long tubular bone (especially in the knee), that is a high risk of a sudden pathological fracture.
Clinicians use a classification that is based on tumor localization. There are 2 types of chondroma:
- an endochrome. The formation of such a tumor occurs in those places where the normal cartilage tissue is absent. More often it occurs in the parotid gland, ovaries, brain, lungs and stuff. It can also be localized on small bones of limbs or tubular bones;
- echondroma. In this case, the tumor develops from high-grade cartilage of small sizes. Most often affected joint cavities, vertebrae, ear, cartilage edges and the like.
Classification by the nature of leaking:
- benign. Such a tumor grows slowly, and does not cause trouble to the patient. It should be noted that it can grow throughout his life, while not degenerating into malignant forms;
- Malignant. This type of tumor develops mainly in the proximal parts of the femur, as well as the humerus. The chondroma of the rib, sternum and pelvis is more susceptible to malignant degeneration.
The exact reasons for the development of this education have not yet been established. But some of the risk factors that can trigger the progression of the chondroma, scientists have already established. This includes:
- age. More often the chondroma begins to develop in young people, less often — in people of age
- injuries of various kinds
- fractures in the history;
- inflammatory processes that affected bone structures
- violation of the processes of ossification. As a rule, this occurs either in the prenatal period, or in the first few years of life.
Symptoms of progression of the chondroma are not pronounced, so a person who has this disease progresses may not notice the development of the neoplasm for a long time. Most often, it is diagnosed during a survey for another reason. Symptoms directly depend on the place of localization of education:
- chondroma in the area of the trachea or in the paranasal sinuses. In this case, the symptoms of the development of pathology may manifest in a person much earlier. This is due to the fact that the tumor is constantly growing and can squeeze the surrounding tissues. As a consequence, the patient has difficulty breathing, and pain can occur;
- a tumor at the base of the skull. The most dangerous place of localization, since it can squeeze the brain. Symptoms of the pathology are pronounced. Frequent dizziness, fainting, headaches are noted. In severe situations — cramps in the limbs;
- a tumor in the joint of the bone. If the outgrowth is located in the knee, elbow and other joints, the patient has painful sensations, aches. Perhaps even a limitation of mobility in the affected joint. Usually, in the presence of these symptoms, a person seeks a doctor, suspecting arthritis of the joint;
- chondroma of tubular bones of the hand or foot. As a rule, in this case, pain does not occur, even if the tumor reaches a large size and can be easily palpated. Pain syndrome can develop only if education has compressed the nerve endings. If a seal is found, even if it does not cause any inconvenience, you should immediately call your doctor for diagnosis and treatment of the pathology
- swelling of the sternum and ribs. Such a tumor can not be felt for many years. But most often patients turn to the doctor because of aesthetic inconvenience — education looks like a small horn on the sternum. Symptoms are manifested in the event that the chondroma will sprout inside. There are pains when trying to change position, as well as during the act of breathing;
- a tumor in the ear. It is localized mainly in the auricle. Chondroma in the ear develops rarely and most often in people under the age of 20 years. Usually, such patients are treated to the doctor only for the reason that education gives them an inconvenient aesthetic aspect. But there are also situations where the ear cannon reaches a large size and significantly worsens the work of the hearing aid. Rarely when the chondrome can be localized behind the ear.
Diagnosis of the chondroma is somewhat difficult, since there is no specific symptomatology. It is worth mentioning the fact that endochondromas can be detected during X-ray examination, but there is no way to detect exochondromas in this way. Therefore, for their diagnosis, additional instrumental survey methods will be required:
- A biopsy. This method is resorted to in the event that there is no certainty that this tumor is benign. The analysis will make it possible to determine the presence or absence of cancer cells in the material.
Treatment of the chondromas of the sternum, ear, tubular bones is based on the complete removal of the damaged bone site along with the tumor. The main goal is to completely stop the growth of education and exclude the risk of relapse. The main and most effective method of treatment is surgical intervention. It is used to remove the chondromus anywhere — at the base of the skull, on the sternum, in the knee and other joints, in the ear, etc.
Now there are 3 methods for removing the chondroma:
- a radical operation. During the intervention, bone tissue is removed along with the tumor, followed by further prosthesis
- Radiation therapy. This technique is optimal in the event that there is no possibility of a radical operation. To such therapy resort extremely seldom, as it can give various complications. Most often it is prescribed in the presence of a chondroma at the base of the skull;
- Chemotherapy. Rarely used technique. It is used to remove metastases that could lead to a chondroma.