Chorioretinitis: Symptoms and Treatment

Chorioretinitis is an inflammatory disease with an acute or chronic course that affects the posterior part of the choroid. The retina is also involved in the process. The circulatory system in the posterior eye is designed so that the vessels here form a wide bed. This anatomical feature leads to a slowing of blood circulation in this area.



For this reason, all infectious agents that penetrate the human body often linger on the back of the eye. Inflammatory process first affects the capillaries, which nourish the blood in the mesh shell, and later passes to the vascular membrane.

Etiology

The following factors can provoke the progression of chorioretinitis:


  • penetration of infectious agents into the eye membranes
  • autoimmune pathologies
  • penetration into the eye tissue of influenza, herpes and HIV viruses
  • immunodeficiency states
  • eye injuries of varying severity;
  • allergic reactions
  • complications of myopia
  • long-term exposure to radiation.

Classification

Classification, depending on the area in which the inflammatory process is localized:


  1. central serous chorioretinitis. In this case, the inflammation affects the macular area of ​​the eye;
  2. Equatorial. Inflammation is localized near the equator of the eye;
  3. peripapillary. The process is localized in the immediate vicinity of the optic nerve
  4. peripheral. Inflammation occurs on the dentate line.

Depending on the number of inflammatory foci:


  • Focal chorioretinitis. There is only one inflammation spot;
  • multifocal disseminated. Inflammation occurs immediately in several areas of the eye;
  • diffuse. A lot of inflammatory foci are formed, which tend to merge.

Depending on the nature of the course of the pathological process:


  1. acute;
  2. chronic.

Symptoms

At the initial stages of progression of chorioretinitis, blurred vision is observed, and after a few days a dark spot appears in the field of vision. Also, the change in color perception is not excluded. Then the clinical picture is supplemented by the following symptoms:


  • «flies» before your eyes;
  • night blindness. This symptom is characterized by a decrease in visual acuity at dusk;
  • Photosensitivity significantly increases;
  • distortion of vision. In medicine, this condition is called metamorphosis;
  • there are «flashes» periodically before your eyes;
  • clouding of the retina;
  • pain in the eyes.

Features of chorioretinitis

Toxoplasmosis chorioretinitis in most clinical situations is congenital. Infection occurs during intrauterine fetal development. Infectious agents affect not only the areas of the eye, but also the tissues of the central nervous system, vital organs. Pathological process wavy — periods of exacerbation alternate with periods of remission. This condition is very dangerous, because without proper treatment, a detachment of the mesh shell can occur.

The tubercular type progresses only on the background of the primary lesion of the lungs. Specific tubercles are formed on the fundus. After the treatment, scars remain on the surface.

Syphilitic chorioretinitis appears quite specific. On the fundus there is an alternation of pathological sites. There are places with fibrosis, but there are also areas with pigmentation.

Diagnostics

If the patient exhibits these symptoms, you should go to a medical facility for comprehensive diagnosis. The standard survey plan includes the following methods:


  1. visual acuity assessment
  2. Perimeter;
  3. refractometry
  4. biomicroscopy
  5. ophthalmoscopy using a special Goldman lens
  6. Ultrasound;
  7. Fluorescence angiography
  8. Electroretinography

The cause of the progression of chorioretinitis can be determined using the following diagnostic techniques:


  • a general blood test;
  • blood biochemistry
  • Urine analysis
  • Analyzes for the presence of antibodies to infectious ailments (hepatitis, syphilis, etc.)

Treatment

The doctor ophthalmologist deals with the treatment of chorioretinitis. It is best to place the patient in a hospital at the time of treatment, so that the specialists could constantly monitor his condition. The treatment plan includes:





  1. use of anti-inflammatory drugs
  2. parabulbar and retrobulbar injections
  3. etiotropic treatment. Its main goal is to eliminate the cause of pathology. To do this, the patient is assigned antiviral, antibacterial drugs
  4. detoxification therapy
  5. Immunotherapy
  6. desensitizing therapy
  7. physiotherapy.




In severe cases, doctors resort to retroviral laser coagulation. This modern treatment technique allows to localize the inflammatory process.