Chronic rhinitis: symptoms and treatment
Chronic rhinitis is a disease characterized by recurring manifestations of acute rhinitis symptoms — difficulty in breathing through the nose, abundant discharge of different consistency, and reduced sense of smell.
This form of the disease brings severe discomfort to the life of a sick person and directly affects the general condition of the body. For the inflammatory process, there is no division into the age and sex of a person — it equally occurs in both adults and children. The most common cause of this type of rhinitis is a reduced level of immunity.
Chronic rhinitis has several varieties, so the course of the disease, symptoms and treatment will be determined for each type separately, but in any case it will have a comprehensive approach and consist of medical therapy, physiotherapy and folk remedies.
The main reasons for the formation of chronic rhinitis are:
- ingestion of allergic substances
- constant use of drops for the nose, which are very often addictive and after that become completely ineffective;
- the difference in the level of hormones in the body due to pregnancy, disruption of work or removal of one part of the thyroid gland
- abuse of alcohol-containing beverages and nicotine;
- eating spicy foods
- pathology of the nasal septum and sinus structure
- inhalation of air with a high content of dust or gas, which leads to irritation of the nasal mucosa
- the consequences of plastic surgery, during which the shape of the nasal concha was changed;
- inflammation of the adenoids
- various diseases of the organism of a chronic nature
- weakened immunity;
- other inflammatory processes in the nasal cavity
- genetic predisposition.
Depending on the cause, chronic rhinitis is divided into these types:
- chronic catarrhal rhinitis — there is a uniform inflammation of the nasal concha. The process is accompanied by strong discharge from the nose and difficult breathing;
- chronic hypertrophic rhinitis — enlargement of the nasal mucosa, which is less or completely unresponsive to drugs
- chronic atrophic rhinitis — the formation of crusts in the nose, which lead to a decrease in the sensitivity of the sense of smell. In rare cases, the peel may have an unpleasant odor. Thinning of the mucosa is also observed
- allergic — can be seasonal or observed all year round. Called by inhaling allergens
- chronic vasomotor rhinitis — which, in turn, can be of a different nature — medicamentous, hormonal, foodborne, caused by hypothermia or inhalation of icy air
- Professional — the causes of which are hidden in the working environment.
On the manifestation of symptoms, the disease is divided into several stages:
- initial — signs of inflammation appear brightly, with abundant secretions
- medium — the volume of the released fluid decreases, compared to the previous stage, the mucus edema increases;
- severe — actually chronic rhinitis, with exacerbation and withdrawal of symptoms
Almost all types of inflammation are treated, except allergic, because for its treatment you need only to be shielded from the influence of allergens. The other types are well suited to any therapies that include even folk remedies.
As there are a lot of types of an ailment, each of them has its own characteristics. So, the symptoms of chronic catarrhal rhinitis can be:
- nasal discharge not abundant, but frequent, with purulent impurities
- the inability to breathe air through your nose
- migratory nasal congestion
- olfactory impairment;
- swelling of the nasal mucosa, which is amplified at night;
- reduction in the volume of nasal passages.
The patient’s condition improves after taking a hot bath or shower, as well as during exercise.
Signs of hypertrophic rhinitis:
- permanent nasal congestion
- discharge of purulent fluid
- the deterioration of not only the sense of smell, but also of hearing;
- changing the voice timbre
- Snoring at night, regardless of gender or age
Symptoms of this type of inflammatory process are expressed after a prolonged course of chronic catarrhal rhinitis.
Symptomatic of chronic atrophic rhinitis:
- burning sensation in the nose
- no selections are observed
- the formation of yellowish or green tints with a fetid odor
- profuse bleeding from the nose, especially when touching the crusts
- severe headaches;
- Attacks of severe cough
This type of disease is also inherent in the thinning of the mucous membrane to such an extent that you can see the cartilage.
For chronic vasomotor rhinitis is characteristic:
- nasal congestion, but only in the morning
- abundant watery liquid discharge
- increased tear
- frequent sneezing attacks
- the appearance of tumors in the nose of a blue hue
Similar symptoms have an allergic chronic rhinitis, only they can be added to:
- severe pruritus of the palate and nose;
- tear is accompanied by pain in the eyes
- total loss of smell ability
- blunting the ability to taste the taste of food
With timely access for help to specialists, it is possible to prevent the occurrence of consequences that are not always amenable to treatment. All types of ailments are treated well, even by using folk remedies.
Consequences of chronic catarrhal rhinitis are:
- inflammation of the ears;
- appearance of caries;
Untimely treatment of allergic rhinitis can lead to the formation of bronchial asthma.
Frequent inhalation of cold air leads to the manifestation of inflammation of the tonsils, constant unpleasant odor from the oral cavity, various lung and bronchial diseases.
In the diagnosis of chronic rhinitis, it is important to determine the type of inflammatory process. It is worth noting that the diagnostic process is simplified by the fact that each of these types of ailment is characterized by its own external manifestation.
Allergic rhinitis is characterized by redness of the nose and eyes. Nasal conchae are also susceptible to swelling, but when exposed to medications come back to normal. Hypertrophic rhinitis is accompanied by an increase in mucous nasal concha, which does not decrease from the effects of drugs, nasal passages are reduced. Chronic atrophic rhinitis can be distinguished by dryness and thinning of the mucous membrane in the nose. In addition to the examination, a detailed questioning of the patient is carried out to determine the time of the first manifestation of the signs of the disease and elucidation of possible independent attempts to cure rhinitis.
The hardware examination of the patient includes:
- endoscopy of the nasopharynx;
- CT of the sinuses of the nose;
You may also need to consult an allergist to confirm the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis.
Treatment of chronic rhinitis is performed only by an otolaryngologist. Each type of inflammation has its own methods of treatment. So, allergic rhinitis can be cured by limiting any contact with allergens and using anti-allergic drugs. Atrophic rhinitis is treated with moisturizing and softening drops or sprays, as well as taking vitamins A, B and D. For any manifestations of chronic rhinitis, the nasal cavity is an excellent treatment.
Surgical methods of treatment are used only when the underlying disease is complicated by the curvature of the septum of the nose, as well as atrophic rhinitis, when it is necessary to narrow the lumen of the nasal passages. Physiotherapy treatment includes acupuncture.
In addition to all of the above methods, patients can be treated by themselves — to use folk remedies at home. But you can only do this with the permission of your doctor.
Folk methods of therapy include tinctures and decoctions for washes from:
- raspberry crust, viburnum, licorice;
- bay leaves
- finely chopped beets
- horseradish and lemons.
It is important to remember that it is impossible to cure chronic rhinitis only with folk remedies. A full-fledged treatment of chronic rhinitis is possible only in combination with medications.
To prevent the usual form of rhinitis from becoming chronic,
- Strengthen immunity, especially during the season of exacerbations of viral diseases
- To prevent allergic rhinitis, protect yourself from exposure to allergens, change your place of work or residence;
- timely treatment of all diseases and respiratory tract infections
- eat lots of vitamins;
- undergo preventive examinations;
- prevent disease with folk remedies (periodically flush the nasal cavity).