Chronic sinusitis: symptoms and treatment
Chronic sinusitis is a disease that most often parents of children and adult patients turn to LOR. In order to understand what kind of pathology, it must be said that there are a lot of sinuses in the nasal cavity, the inflammation of which causes sinusitis. And one sinus rarely becomes inflamed — polysynusitis is often noted, that is, multiple inflammatory foci in them.
If the symptoms of the disease have appeared, you should immediately consult a doctor, as the spread of purulent contents of the sinuses can cause such severe complications as meningitis, phlegmon of the oropharynx, etc. From acute sinusitis chronic differs less pronounced symptomatology and a longer course. Therefore, curing chronic sinusitis is more difficult than an acute form of the disease.
In modern ENT-practice, several types of chronic sinusitis are distinguished. First of all, they are divided into three groups, depending on the sinuses that undergo inflammation.
According to this criterion, pathology can be:
In sphenoidal sinusitis, inflammation occurs in the sphenoid sinuses of the nose, and this symptom is characterized by symptoms such as persistent nasal congestion, headache giving to the nape, and lack of discharge from the nasal passages.
Frontal chronic sinusitis is the most common pathology, the symptoms of which are pronounced are abundant discharge with an unpleasant odor and high fever.
Ethmoidal is characterized by soreness in the region of the bridge of the nose, transparent, and in the subsequent thick, secretions of a purulent nature, a violation of breathing. Also in medical practice one of the most unpleasant forms of pathology is distinguished: maxillary chronic sinusitis. The disease occurs due to the inflammatory process in the maxillary sinuses located on the upper jaw. It should be noted that the maxillary sinusitis can cause the development of oncology, so it must be treated in a timely manner.
There are several varieties of such a disease as chronic sinusitis, depending on the reasons for its occurrence, this is:
- polyposis, arising from the appearance of tumor-like growths (polyps) in the nasal cavity
- odontogenic, which occurs when a child or an adult caries teeth.
So, the reasons for the development of the disease, as is clear from the above, can be different. Often the pathology develops against the background of a respiratory-viral infection in children or adults. Not fully treated pathology can cause inflammatory phenomena in the sinuses of the nose, causing sinusitis. Also, the cause of the disease can be covered in the irrational intake of such drugs as antibiotics.
Neoplasms in the nasal cavity cause polyposis sinusitis, and also the chronic form can develop due to curvature of the nasal septum or due to ingress of foreign objects into the nasal sinuses.
The causes of the disease in children or adults can be and such as:
- nasal sinus trauma
- long-term inhalation of toxic fumes and substances (eg tobacco, even with passive smoking, etc.)
- enlarged adenoids, which is more common in children than in adults
- violation of the work of immunity
The disease develops in adults who inhale harmful industrial vapors for a long time, or they are long in premises with high humidity.
Drinking alcohol can also provoke sinusitis in adults. And predisposing factors that can lead to this disease are:
- bronchial asthma and other lung diseases
- cystic fibrosis;
Sometimes the disease can develop against the background of increased sensitivity of adults and children to aspirin.
Most often doctors diagnose purulent chronic sinusitis, polyposis, as well as maxillary, which develops either because of the supercooling of this area, or because of the presence in the patient’s mouth of carious teeth. And the disease in children and adults can develop against the background of an allergic process, then the treatment will consist in using antihistamines and excluding the effect of the allergen on the body.
Symptoms of the disease depend on the location of the inflammatory process. We have already mentioned individual symptoms in this or that form of the disease, but if we consider them more carefully, then we need to identify common symptoms and particular ones.
Common symptoms are:
- temperature increase;
- breathing through the nose
- swelling of the face
- dry cough, worse at night;
- discharge from the nose, usually purulent.
If we talk about the specific symptoms that depend on the site of localization of the inflammation focus, the polyposis sinusitis differs in nasal obstruction and nasal breathing, and the frontal one with nasal congestion, lack of smell, and the presence of purulent secretion with an unpleasant odor.
Separately, we should consider the maxillary sinusitis, known in the people as a sinusitis. It is characterized by pain in the forehead, swelling in the nose and under the eyes, breathing disorders, pain in the ears, bad breath. Painful sensations in such a pathology as the maxillary sinusitis, are amplified if you press on the area above the incisors.
Discharge from the nose is usually not observed with maxillary sinusitis, but this form is the most dangerous, since it can lead to serious complications and often degenerates into a malignant process. It must be said that the symptoms of chronic sinusitis can become more pronounced or even disappear altogether. Accordingly, this indicates an exacerbation of the disease and its remission.
If we talk about the treatment of chronic sinusitis, then it should be comprehensive and long-lasting. Complex treatment allows you to eliminate symptoms and prolong the remission of the disease, but you can also completely recover from the pathology, if you show diligence and accurately fulfill the appointment of a doctor.
Many people try to treat the disease with folk remedies, and although the effectiveness of such drugs is high enough, without the combination with drug therapy they allow only to eliminate symptoms, but not to cure forever of the ailment. Therefore, the first thing that a person should do is consult a doctor for examination.
Diagnosis of pathology is carried out by collecting anamnesis, examining the patient and performing such diagnostic procedures as:
- computed tomography
- Diagnostic puncture.
If you talk about the drug treatment of a disease such as chronic sinusitis, then for this purpose are used:
- antibacterial drugs
- Steroid drugs;
- physiotherapy methods;
- Treatment with folk remedies.
The most common antibiotics prescribed by doctors are: Amoxiclav, Besipol, Doxycycline. Vasoconstrictors prescribed for patients are Galazoline, Sanorin and other drops in the nose. Antihistamines, which are shown in the allergic form of pathology — L-cet, Loratadin, Suprastin and others, and immunomodulators can be attributed to Sinuforte.
Treatment of a form such as polyposis sinusitis is exclusively surgical and it consists in the removal of polyps in the nasal cavity. Treatment of the maxillary form of the pathology can be both conservative and surgical (sinus drainage), depending on the severity of the symptoms and the patient’s condition.
Speaking about physiotherapy procedures, this is the washing of the nasal passages with antiseptic drugs, which is performed in the conditions of the medical institution.
Also to physiotherapy procedures are:
- laser treatment
- mud therapy, etc.
Therapy can be supplemented with folk remedies, but only with the permission of the attending physician. A good effect is provided by steam inhalations, for which herbs such as sage, chamomile and others, which have an anti-inflammatory effect, are used.
Also for the treatment of folk remedies apply:
- onion and garlic;
- radish juice
- aloe juice
- sea buckthorn oil
Recipes for the treatment of folk remedies are simple — juice from plants is usually squeezed out and used to dig in the nose and lubricate the nasal passages.
There are also folk remedies for treating this form of the disease, like maxillary sinusitis or sinusitis. The most popular way to get rid of the insidious disease is washing the nasal passages with saline solution with the addition of a few drops of iodine. And although doctors do not recognize this method, it does work for most patients, allowing them to avoid surgical intervention in the treatment of sinusitis.
It is better to treat sinusitis with folk remedies only in case of pathology in adults, since one can never foresee how the child’s organism will react to this or that folk medicine. In adults, however, usually such problems do not arise, so the integrated use of medicines and treatment with folk remedies helps to quickly and effectively treat any form of disease.