Cysticercosis: symptoms and treatment
Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease that progresses as a result of the penetration of larvae of pork chopsticks into the human body. He refers to the group of cestodes. The larvae of the pork chain penetrate into the human stomach and are freed from its shell in it. Gradually, they move into the initial parts of the intestine, where the walls of the intestine are damaged and spread throughout the human body with blood flow.
They can penetrate absolutely all vital organs, violating their full functioning. Most often in this form of helminthiasis, the spinal cord and brain, skin, subcutaneous tissue, internal organs, muscular structures, visual apparatus and bones are affected.
Cysticercosis is a pathology that can develop in absolutely any person. It has no restrictions as to sex and age. The reason for this prevalence is that many people inadequately observe the rules of personal hygiene, as well as consume unprocessed foods.
The causative agent of cysticercosis is the larva of the pork chain, also called cysticerc or finn. Outwardly it looks like an oval shaped bubble filled with a transparent liquid. Inside, a scolex or a head, equipped with specific suckers and several hooks, is localized. They are necessary in order to ensure reliable fixation in the tissues of the human body in the future. The size of the cysticercum is from 5 to 15 mm. Inside the human body, such a larva can live up to 17 years.
In the case of an exogenous path of infection, the larvae penetrate the human body from the external environment. This can happen when:
- soil fertilization with contaminated excrement
- Inadequate hygiene practices
- violation of the rules for working with infected excrement by a laboratory assistant
The endogenous pathway of infection is observed in people with antiperistalsis in the digestive tract. In this case, the contents of the intestine along with the segments of the pathogen are thrown into the stomach cavity. Under the action of enzymes, a large number of larvae are released.
Cysticercosis is tenuicolic, like any other type of helminthiasis, is a rather dangerous pathology. In the process of its life, the pathogen releases a large number of toxins that poison the human body.
Common symptoms of cysticercosis of the tenuicol:
- skin lesions
- headaches of varying degrees of intensity;
- increased fatigue;
- pain in the muscles
- impaired consciousness (fainting)
- an allergic reaction. The degree of its expression can be different — from the appearance on the skin of small elements of the rash and ending with anaphylactic shock
Clinic of cysticercosis of the tenuicol depends directly on which organ was most affected by the pathogens of the pathogen.
Cysticercosis of the brain is diagnosed in 80% of patients from the total number of infected. In the brain, the life of the larvae is from 5 to 20 years. Cysticercosis of the brain affects the tissue that surrounds it, as well as the meninges. Inflammatory process becomes the reason of accumulation of superfluous exudate in an organ and there is a hydrocephalus.
Symptoms of cysticercosis of the brain:
- minor pares
- Sensitivity disorder of certain areas of the human body
- speech impairment
- occurrence of seizures, including epileptic ones.
If a patient develops a cerebral edema, then the indicated clinic is supplemented with such symptoms:
- An intolerable headache;
- nausea and vomiting
- changes in the psyche;
- neurotic manifestations;
- lingering depression
- the patient becomes very excited
- hallucinations are possible;
- cardiac dysfunction
- disruption of the pulmonary system
- disruption of the visual apparatus
The patient needs to start assisting as soon as possible if the indicated symptoms appear, since if therapy is not performed, then even a lethal outcome is possible.
The defeat of the visual apparatus
Cysticercosis of the eye is manifested by such symptoms:
- Conjunctivitis. The patient experiences burning, itching, lacrimation, and swelling of the eye mucosa;
- visual acuity is significantly reduced. In severe cases with cysticercosis of the eye, a person is completely blinded;
- the choroid of the visual apparatus is inflamed. This is manifested by eye hyperemia, burning and increased lacrimation;
- The mesh membrane of the eye becomes inflamed. This pathological process proceeds without pronounced painful sensations. Its only manifestation is a decrease in visual acuity.
It is worth noting that cysticercosis of the eye in all cases leads to atrophy of the eyeball.
Spinal Cord Injury
If the larvae were affected by the brain, then there is a very high probability that they will be brought into the spinal cord with the flow of the cerebrospinal fluid. As a consequence, this organ of the human nervous system becomes inflamed, it produces pathological adhesions, cystic cavities, abscesses. It is also possible to block vessels with foci of ischemia.
Symptoms of pathology:
- pain in the legs and arms, back
- shingling pain in the chest and abdomen
- spastic paresis
- Sensitivity impairment
- violation of the full functioning of the pelvic organs
Lesions of the lungs, heart and skin
In case of damage to subcutaneous fat larvae, cavitary tumor-like formations are formed in it. They are located mainly on the palms, sternum and shoulders. Especially dangerous is the defeat of the cysticercles of the heart. The larvae are usually located in the bundle bundle, thereby disrupting the functioning of the heart muscle. It is manifested by a violation of the rhythm. If the larvae penetrate into the lungs, then usually no symptoms appear.
If these symptoms are indicated, it is recommended to immediately apply to a medical institution for comprehensive diagnosis. The standard diagnostic plan for suspected cysticercosis includes:
- blood test
- serological response of blood serum and cerebrospinal fluid
Treatment of cysticercosis is carried out exclusively in a hospital and under the supervision of medical specialists. This disease is very severe and not always drug therapy has the necessary effect.
Most often, doctors resort to surgical treatment of cysticercosis. But in this case, the chances of recovery are few. If the lesions are localized in the subcutaneous tissue or in the skin itself, then the prognosis can still be favorable (only taking into account the timely treatment). If the brain or spinal cord is damaged, or the visual apparatus, it often becomes a cause of death. Even surgical intervention can be ineffective.
Prevention of the disease consists in strict adherence to the rules of hygiene, as well as in eating only high-quality products. It is also important to regularly take preventive examinations from specialists. It is also important to carefully treat pork before consumption before use.