Cystitis in men: symptoms and treatment
Cystitis in men is a disease of an infectious or non-infectious nature, characterized by an inflammatory process in the bladder mucosa. According to statistics, cystitis often affects women, but, nevertheless, sometimes men also have to experience all the «charms» of this pathology.
Representatives of the stronger sex rarely suffer from this disease due to the peculiarities of the structure of their urinary tract, which is much longer than the female one, and therefore the infection of the bladder with bacteria is very difficult. And even if bacteria penetrate into the urethra, they can not go further along the urinary canal, and often they are completely washed out of the urethra by the urine stream.
Therefore, representatives of the stronger sex can face this pathology in only a few cases:
- if their immunity is greatly reduced;
- if the infection has penetrated the urinary canal in large quantities.
Doctors speak of two main forms of this disease in men — acute and chronic. The acute form is characterized by the severity of clinical symptoms, and chronic cystitis in men can last for years with subtle symptomatology, with periodic exacerbation.
There are various factors that can trigger a disease:
- infections of the kidneys and ureters;
- chronic foci of infection in the body
- Sexual infections
- Radiation exposure
- Prostatitis or urethritis;
- entering into the bladder mycobacterium tuberculosis
- allergic reactions.
The main predisposing factor for the development of cystitis is the hypothermia of the body, during which people with reduced immunity may experience this disease. In addition, men who suffer from such a pathology as prostate adenoma or cancer of this organ often face cystitis.
As for the causative agent that causes acute cystitis, it is mainly proteus, but also pathology can arise due to the effects of coca, E. coli and other bacterial infections.
As mentioned above, cystitis in men is classified into acute and chronic. But these two main types of pathology, also have their own variety. So, acute cystitis can be:
When they say that the disease is rare, they mean the frequency of occurrence 1 time per year and less, and when they say that often — it is assumed 2 times a year and more often.
As for chronic cystitis, it also happens of several varieties:
- latent, that is, taking place without significant symptomatology or in general asymptomatic, but nevertheless having periods of exacerbation that occur from one to several times a year
- persistent, in which the signs of the disease manifest 2-3 times a year;
- Interstitial, characterized by regular exacerbations (more often 3 times a year) and the presence of pain syndrome, and general symptoms (weakness, temperature rise, etc.).
Interstitial cystitis is the most severe form of this pathology, and it is much more difficult to treat it than other forms of the disease.
It should be said that when the pathology divides into acute and chronic cystitis, then the main criterion is not the number of exacerbations per year, but the changes occurring from the mucosa of the affected organ. In particular, in the case of chronic pathology, the mucosa undergoes changes, its structure and color changes.
In addition to the above described varieties, this disease in men is divided into two types, depending on the nature of the occurrence. It can be either primary or secondary cystitis.
The primary is said when the disease first appeared and its appearance is not associated with any pathological processes within the body. Secondary cystitis develops as a consequence of other diseases of internal organs and the bladder. In particular, bladder injuries, the presence of stones, tumors, ingestion of foreign bodies, etc. (causes of cystic origin) or prostatitis, diseases of the spine and other diseases (causes of extra-tubular origin) can lead to its appearance.
And the last classification of this pathology in men is the allocation of three forms of pathology, depending on the affected area of the bladder. So, if the organ neck is affected, talk about cervical cystitis, if the urinoid triangle is affected — about the trembling, and when the walls of the organ are involved in the process — about diffuse cystitis.
Types of inflammatory process
Such a pathology as cystitis in men can develop in different ways. The most favorable course is catarrhal, in which there is no change in the mucosa of the bladder and it is simply hyperemic. With phlegmonous flow, the disease is accompanied by the release of a large amount of pus in the urine, and with hemorrhagic — impurities of the blood (due to trauma to the bladder mucosa).
Also distinguish such forms of the disease as:
There are rare types of this pathology in medical practice, for example, cystitis, developing with purpura, and others.
Cystitis has a certain symptomatology, which is difficult to confuse with the symptoms of other diseases. In particular, patients complain of painful and frequent urination, after which the urge to urinate does not stop. There is also burning in the urethra, impurities in the urine of pus or blood, a change in the color and smell of urine.
In most cases, general symptoms of cystitis appear in men, such as hyperthermia, weakness, fatigue, muscle aches and articulations, pain in the groin, in the scrotum and penis, and in the suprapubic region.
To diagnose pathology, it is not enough that only the symptoms of the disease are present — usually, the patients are also shown such studies as a general blood and urine test, urine bactericidal bacterial flora, and PCR.
Also performed is the ultrasound of kidneys, cystoscopy and cystography.
If we talk about the treatment of cystitis in men, it depends on the form of the disease. Treat this pathology should only a urologist — independent treatment can lead to complications. Acute cystitis is treated according to one scheme, and chronic on another. When an acute patient is prescribed a bed rest, a plentiful warm drink, and also some preparations. In particular, analgesics and antispasmodics are shown to relieve the pain symptom, and antibacterial drugs are used to kill the infection. The most popular antibiotics for cystitis in men, which should be taken for 2 weeks, is:
The best antispasmodics that should be used in this disease are the nose-pa and papaverine.
Important diet is important — it is necessary to exclude spices and condiments from the diet, to stop using alcohol, smoked foods and pickles. A good effect is the use of methods of alternative medicine — the use of herbal decoctions, which have antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties.
Usually, the treatment of cystitis in men does not cause complications and if the pathology occurred for the first time, the recovery occurs in 100% of cases, provided that the person complies with all the doctor’s recommendations.
Medicines for chronic cystitis in men who appoint him will be similar, but they are supplemented by physiotherapeutic and some medical procedures. In particular, antibacterial drugs, drugs that relieve spasm and inflammation in the body, as well as drugs that treat the underlying cause of the disease are used.
The physiotherapeutic methods of treatment of this pathology include:
- mud applications
In addition, washing of the bladder under medical conditions with solutions of furacilin and silver nitrate is shown.
If a patient has a gangrenous form of cystitis, it is necessary to remove the affected parts of the mucosa surgically, after which antibacterial drugs and anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed.
If the disease is not treated, serious complications can develop. For example, the development of gangrenous form, acute retention of urine, the formation of fistula, etc. If you treat the acute cystitis correctly, you can completely get rid of the disease. Chronic, with proper treatment, goes into an inactive form, with long periods of absence of symptoms.