Cystitis in women: symptoms and treatment

Cystitis in women — an inflammatory process that affects the mucous layer of the bladder. This ailment is characterized by frequent and painful urge to emit urine. After the process of emptying the bladder, a woman can feel a burning sensation and sharp rubbers, a feeling of insufficient devastation. Urine often goes along with mucus or blood. Diagnosis and treatment of cystitis in women consists of a whole set of tools. Conduct such events, as well as explain how to treat cystitis in women can only a highly qualified urologist. In addition, the prevention of this ailment is possible independently at home.

Cystitis is the most common infectious disorder of the urethra, which occurs in almost every second female. The frequency of manifestation in women is determined by the short and wide urethra. The causes of such an ailment are bacteria and inflammatory diseases of organs that participate in the process of urine emission. In many female representatives, the disease proceeds in chronic form, with a frequency of exacerbations several times a year. Often occurs during the reproductive age — from twenty to forty-five years.


Since the urethra in women and girls has its anatomical characteristics, and a close arrangement with the anus allows bacteria or viruses to enter the urinary tract, they often develop this ailment. In addition, the causes of cystitis in women are:

  • various intestinal infections and staphylococci
  • transfer of the virus or bacteria to the blood stream
  • inflammation of the genitals
  • weakened immunity;
  • hormonal changes;
  • allergic reactions
  • the effect of radiation or radiation on the pubic area
  • exposure to chemicals
  • long-term effects of cold temperatures, hypothermia due to wearing short clothes that do not cover the lower back
  • promiscuous sexual relations or lack of protection during this process
  • non-observance of personal hygiene
  • wearing uncomfortable or narrow underwear
  • incomplete emptying of the bladder — most often seen in pregnant women
  • anal sex
  • severe fatigue
  • Vitamin deficiency in the body
  • a wide range of other diseases of internal organs, in particular genital organs
  • complications from gynecological interventions
  • foreign objects in the urinary canal
  • unhealthy lifestyle
  • changes in the female body related to the period of pregnancy.

The combination of several factors can lead to the manifestation of cystitis in women — it is for this reason that the disorder is widespread. Removing symptoms at home, without the knowledge of doctors, can lead to the formation of complications.


The degree of the disease is classified as:

  1. acute — characterized by a sharp manifestation of symptoms, as well as frequent visits to the toilet and deterioration of general health
  2. Chronic — another inflammatory process is needed for its appearance

Depending on the factors of occurrence, the disorder happens:

  • of a bacterial nature — caused by bacteria or viruses
  • non-bacterial — formed due to any other pathogenic influence.

By changes in the structure of the affected internal organ, the ailment is divided into:

  1. catarrhal — inflammation occurs on the upper layers of the bladder;
  2. hemorrhagic cystitis in women — there are blood impurities in urine;
  3. Cystic — cysts begin to form;
  4. ulcer
  5. phlegmonous — urinary canal attack white blood cells
  6. gangrenous — which reduces the volume of the bladder
  7. encrusting — salt particles begin to be deposited on ulcers
  8. granulomatous — appears from fungi
  9. tumor-like — the appearance of tumors on the walls of the organ
  10. Interstitial — the infection occurred non-microbially. There is a decrease in the bladder.


The main sign of the disease is considered a frequent urge to emit urine. In addition, the symptoms of cystitis in women can be:

  • urine is allocated in small parts
  • unpleasant sensations and burning sensation directly during emptying;
  • frequent use of the toilet at night
  • secretions are cloudy, often with impurities of mucus or blood;
  • a constant feeling of heaviness in the bladder or incomplete devastation
  • before the process of urinating, a woman needs to push,
  • urine incontinence (observed on rare occasions)
  • weakness of the body
  • increase in temperature to forty degrees;
  • urine takes a sharp unpleasant odor
  • the appearance of pain in the kidney and spine.

At the first detection of one or more signs of cystitis in women at home, especially blood in the urine, you must immediately seek help from the clinic.


In case of incorrect or untimely therapy or frequent relapses, the following complications can develop:

  1. the transition of this illness to a chronic form
  2. promotion of infection to other internal organs, which may lead to the appearance of pyelonephritis, urethritis and vaginal vulvitis
  3. decrease the size of the organ in which urine collects;
  4. reflux — the contents of the bladder are thrown up the ureters
  5. kidney abscess;
  6. a bubble break is the rarest of the consequences.

The disease is characterized by frequent relapses, especially in the first year after recovery, therefore it is necessary to constantly monitor the transparency and the presence of a blood impurity in urine.


The definition of cystitis in women is based on such studies as:

  • A general urine test, in which, for a given ailment, an increased concentration of leukocytes and protein, red blood cells and salts will be detected. Blood and mucus will also be found. In addition, the volumes of the separated liquid and its density are estimated
  • Urine sowing — conducted to identify pathogens of the disorder;
  • Analyzes for the detection of infections that could be transmitted sexually
  • laboratory tests of genital swabs
  • studying the flow of urine
  • Cystoscopy reveals the presence of cancer tumors, cysts, ulcers, foreign objects or stones
  • biopsy — which takes a sample of the mucosa of the urinary bladder for later laboratory study
  • ultrasound of urethra organs
  • Examination by the obstetrician-gynecologist of the patient on a gynecological chair

After conducting a full examination and obtaining the results of all tests, the urologist appoints cystitis therapy.


Treatment of cystitis in women is carried out by a whole complex of measures and is under the full control of a gynecologist and urologist. Therapy of the disease in ordinary cases does not exceed ten days, during which it is necessary: ​​

  1. prescribing antibiotics for cystitis in women. It is these pharmaceutical products that play the most important role in the treatment of the disease;
  2. with severe pain, apply analgesics;
  3. washing with anti-infectious agents
  4. If necessary, surgical intervention. But this method is provided only with a decrease in the bladder (it is performed by artificial enlargement, carried out with a special solution), to eliminate the source of the disease, and also in cases where it is necessary to reinstall the urethra from the vagina under the clitoris or to eliminate the incomplete emptying of the bladder.

In addition, the treatment uses a diet that a woman must adhere to at home. The diet for cystitis in women is:

  • consumption of dairy products and cereals. These foods should make up most of the diet;
  • at least two liters of fluid per day — fruit drinks, compotes, fresh fruit
  • refusal from sharp, salted and fried foods
  • Excluding the absorption of carbonated and alcoholic beverages

In addition, at home, it is possible to use folk medicine, which includes:

  1. decoction of St. John’s wort and chamomile
  2. tincture of mint, cornflowers and young poplar buds
  3. drinking warm milk with honey and garlic
  4. using foot baths from chamomile, dog rose, birch buds
  5. phytotherapy with essential oils of juniper, sage, chamomile, echinacea.

But before using folk therapy at home, you should consult your doctor.


Measures to prevent cystitis in women consist of:

  • compliance with all rules of genital hygiene
  • timely change of underwear;
  • rational nutrition, enriched with vitamins
  • avoiding the body’s hypothermia
  • refusal from uncomfortable and tight clothes
  • Observations for their secretions. If a woman or girl in the urine has detected blood, she should immediately seek help from specialists;

  • Regular visits to the gynecologist — every three months.