Deep vein thrombosis: symptoms and treatment
Deep vein thrombosis is a pathological process, during which blood clotting and the formation of blood clots in the veins occur. This disease is often accompanied by phlebothrombosis — its main difference from thrombosis is that the pathology progresses not in deep veins, but in surface vessels.
The most common site of localization is the lower extremities, because it is in this part of the body that varicose veins most often develop. Female representatives are more predisposed, due to the use of various contraceptives and hormonal drugs. In childhood, it is very rare and can only be a consequence of a severe fracture.
Among the signs of this process are isolated — sharp pain, skin tone changes and increased puffiness, compared to a healthy limb. If you do not start treatment in time, a complication can develop in the form of pulmonary embolism, which causes death. In addition, the danger of the disease is that a small part of the clot can come off and with the flow of blood move along the venous system, resulting in a significant violation of blood flow.
In case of deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs, the injured person should be immediately hospitalized, as this can lead to severe consequences for human health, including venous insufficiency.
There are several reasons and risk groups for people who are most often exposed to thrombosis. The reasons for this disease include:
- blood clotting disorder (implied rapid formation of blood clots)
- Violation of the structure of the walls of the veins — the result of injuries, infections, exposure to a chemical or allergen
- slow blood flow in blood vessels
- increased blood viscosity;
- a sedentary lifestyle, complete immobilization of a person due to illness or fractures, standing conditions of work
The risk factors for the formation of deep vein thrombosis are:
- consequences of surgery
- excessive physical strain on the lower limbs;
- a wide variety of leg injuries
- taking contraceptives;
- hormonal failures due to pregnancy or hormone use
- Oncological neoplasms
- abuse of nicotine and alcoholic beverages
- insufficient fluid intake
- age group — a high chance of occurrence of such a disorder in elderly people
- prolonged exposure to low temperatures on the body
- the postpartum period;
- the constant wearing of shoes with high heels
Deep vein thrombosis has several subspecies:
- phlebothrombosis — the previous stage of the disease, in which the clot is loosely attached to the vessel (the probability of its detachment is high)
- thrombophlebitis — characterized by a stable attachment of a thrombus and inflammation of the venous membrane. Separation in this case is unlikely.
Depending on the source of occurrence, deep vein thrombosis happens:
- stagnant — provoking external compression
- inflammatory — the origin of which is caused by trauma, infectious and allergic processes
- hemostatic — as a result of a clotting disorder
Differences in the way the thrombus is attached to the wall:
- total gain to the damaged area — the vessel is completely blocked, blood does not pass;
- partial increase in which there is a clearance for blood flow
- A blood clot is carried with a blood stream, there is a possibility of separating a small piece of blood clot that can block a smaller vessel
In the place of localization, the disorder happens:
- deep vein thrombosis;
- thrombosis of the veins of the foot
- vein thrombosis.
In the form of percolation:
- acute — with a single manifestation of symptoms
- chronic — with periods of exacerbation and withdrawal of symptoms. Occurs often with improper treatment or lack of it, leads to complications.
In addition to external signs of thrombosis — redness and swelling, there are other symptoms:
- heaviness when walking;
- seizures, aggravated during sleep
- Skin sensitivity and discomfort from touching can spread to the shin and thigh
- the temperature of the injured limb is increased, compared to the healthy one
- over time, the skin becomes blue;
- the veins are swollen and well-visible;
- increase in body temperature;
- varicose veins on the shin.
In individual cases, deep vein thrombosis proceeds without manifestation of any signs. Perhaps their expression only in the late stages. This entails severe consequences or death.
The acute symptoms of thrombosis are characterized by the same symptoms as in the usual form, the main difference is their intensity.
Ignoring the symptoms of the disease invariably leads to the appearance of consequences. Thus, complications of deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs are expressed in the form:
- thromboembolism of the pulmonary artery. It often causes death, because respiratory and heart failure develops;
- an infarct of the lung that occurs when a small part of the clot is blocked by a small branch of the artery of the organ
- venous insufficiency, chronic nature. May lead to disability.
To avoid the expression of life-threatening health consequences, you should immediately seek medical help if you have minor symptoms of the disorder. In the case when they are not at all, the cause for anxiety is fast fatigue of the legs during a long walk.
In order to prescribe the proper treatment, it is necessary to conduct a thorough diagnosis and evaluate the manifesting symptoms. A comprehensive examination of the patient is carried out — the complaints of the patient, the first signs of the disorder, the approximate time of their detection are taken into account. The patient is also examined by a vascular surgeon to determine the swelling, pulsation and sensitivity of the affected skin. Important indicators will be measurements of body weight and blood pressure.
Since external manifestations can not correctly diagnose deep vein thrombosis, the patient is assigned:
- a blood test, which makes it possible to detect the presence of an inflammatory process
- definition of blood coagulability — if it is increased, the chances of blood clots increase
- Lower extremity ultrasound. The examination is carried out not only for the injured leg, but also for the healthy one, to exclude the appearance of blood clots in it;
- Radiography of veins with the use of contrast medium — to indicate the exact location of the thrombus
- X-rays of the lungs are performed to confirm or refute the formation of complications.
Additionally, you may need to consult the following specialists — a cardiologist, traumatologist and therapist.
Treatment of deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs provides a set of measures:
- Non-pharmacological therapy — used only in the initial degree of the disorder. For this, the patient needs to ensure complete rest, the position of the legs must be fixed above the level of the body position;
- Drug treatment is aimed at diluting the blood, which will prevent the formation of blood clots. When they are present, substances are appointed that eliminate them. The course of therapy can be from a month to six months, depending on the severity of the symptoms. The main task of such therapy is not to let go of a small part of the thrombus that can penetrate into the pulmonary artery with a blood stream
- surgery. During the operation, a thrombus is removed or thrombolysis is performed, in which the doctor enters the catheter directly into the clot through which the thrombose substance is injected. But this method is used extremely rarely, because it can lead to bleeding, and only in those cases in which other methods of therapy have not helped. Another method of surgical intervention involves the installation in the vein of a special filter that will not allow the thrombus to enter the pulmonary artery.
In addition, you can use folk remedies, which should not be the only panacea for thrombosis. You can prepare infusions and decoctions from:
- garlic and honey
- hop cones
- Oak bark;
- Leaf and flowers of clover
- White acacia, drenched in alcohol
- honey and juice of onions.
It is possible to treat the disease in such ways as hirudotherapy and foot baths using a tannic root.
For patients with deep vein thrombosis, it is important to adhere to a special diet that prohibits eating:
- fried foods
- fat meats and broths prepared from them
- Sweet flour products
- Smoked sausages
- fizzy sweet drinks;
- Kiwi, bananas, currants and spinach.
The diet for deep vein thrombosis provides for consumption in any quantity:
- Boiled, steamed or baked dishes in the oven without the use of vegetable oil
- low-fat fish and other seafood;
- decoctions of folk remedies
- dried fruits
- fruits and vegetables other than prohibited;
- Sea kale
- compotes, fresh and fruit drinks.
Allowed products dilute blood and prevent the formation of blood clots (help in recovery and in the prevention of disease).
Prophylactic measures of deep vein thrombosis consist of:
- a healthy lifestyle — you should stop smoking and alcohol-containing beverages
- Rational nutrition and diet compliance. Food should be taken in small portions five or six times a day;
- Drinking enough liquid — at least one and a half liters per day
- performing moderate physical activities
- Regular check-ups in the clinic, especially people with diabetes,
- refusing long walks to the elderly
- taking medications that dilute the blood after any operations
- timely treatment of diseases that can lead to blood clots;
- If you have any signs of illness, consult a doctor
- the constant use of elastic bandage to reduce swelling and improve blood flow.