How to prevent early miscarriage
- How does miscarriage happen in the early stages?
- Stages of early miscarriage
- How to diagnose early miscarriage
- What should you do if you notice the signs of early miscarriage
- Rehabilitation and pregnancy after early miscarriage
- How to prevent early miscarriage
- What provokes miscarriage
Miscarriage or (spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss) occurs in the early stages (up to 22 weeks) and it is rejection of the fetus by the mother’s body. Here we speak about 22 weeks because later stages are defined as premature delivery and a baby’s life can be saved if its weight is over half a kilogram.
Two mechanisms of miscarriage are distinguished:
- Rejection. Miscarriage happens within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Miscarriage is provoked by immunological conflict between a mother and a fetus and, as a result, mother’s protection system perceives a fetus as a foreign body and starts to produce antibodies. The cells of the immune system attack a fetus and destroy chorionic villi. A fetus does not get enough nutrition and dies. Then a fetus is ejected from the uterus.
- Delivery. If pregnancy is over three months (the second trimester), the mechanism of miscarriage is different. The mother’s immune system does not play any significant role here. It is the uterus and its disorders are important. The major cause of a miscarriage is uterine muscle hypertonia or any uterine neck disorders. A fetus does not die but due to premature contractions it is born. As it is not able to live in the new environment, it dies.
Stages of early miscarriage
Disregarding the mechanism of miscarriage, the stage of pregnancy or individual characteristics of a mother’s body, several stages of miscarriage are distinguished. In rare cases, there is a chance to save the life of a fetus and early detection of threatened miscarriage symptoms may help to minimize the complications of miscarriage for a mother’s health.
Stages of miscarriage:
- Threatening. This is the earliest stage when the changes in a woman’s organism just started and she begins to experience pains in the lower abdomen. There are no other early miscarriage symptoms, so even minor changes in the state of health should be the reason for visiting a doctor. In this stage, all anthropometric and anatomical characteristics of the uterine correspond to the pregnancy stage.
- Beginning. Pain in this stage is aggravated and a woman has minor vaginal discharge. The process of fetus rejections starts and it partially abrupts. The changes in the uterus are pronounced only if a woman suffers insuficiencia istmicocervical. For this reason, the symptoms of early miscarriage are quite mild.
- Inevitable miscarriage. A fetus (or an egg) completely detaches from the uterine wall and moves down to the neck of the uterus. A doctor can see its part during examination. In this stage, a woman suffers copious bleeding reminding menstruation. The two outcomes are possible:
- Incomplete miscarriage. The ovum is removed from the uterus but not from the membranes. Due to this, treatment after early miscarriage in this case requires scraping, otherwise serious complications will occur as well as uterine bleeding which poses danger for a woman’s health.
- Complete miscarriage. It is the most favorable outcome of miscarriage and most often it does not require any additional measures. The ovum and the membranes are removed from the uterine, the organ returns to its normal size and the bleeding stops. Later the uterus recovers as after usual delivery.
Causes of miscarriage in the early stages
Sometimes it is not possible to say why early miscarriage happens. A woman undergoes numerous examinations but no dysfunctions are found. Among the most common causes of miscarriage are the following:
- Genetic defects of a fetus. Male and female sex cells with a single set of chromosomes should join together so that a fetus began its development. If initially or in the process of joining any mutation occurred, a fetus is unviable and miscarriage happens.
- Hormonal imbalance. Progesterone is critically important for pregnancy and the lack of it may lead to miscarriage. The same happens with increased amount of male sex hormones. To avoid early miscarriage, it is necessary to consult a doctor to receive a substitution therapy before a woman gets pregnant.
- Rh incompatibility. It occurs when a mother has Rh- positive and a baby Rh-negative. The immune system of a mother is activated and it perceives a fetus as a foreign body. The cells of protecting system attack a fetus and reject it from the body of a mother.
- Infectious pathologies. Here both acute and chronic infections play an important role. Infections in the whole body are involved but not only infections in the female reproductive system. Among the factors leading to a fetus death are fever, intoxication and fetus infection. A particular attention should be paid to such a disease as epidemic roseola. A woman having immunity against this disease is out of risk. Otherwise, a woman must administer immunizing agents before getting pregnant.
- Abortion. The signs of early miscarriage may appear after previous spontaneous abortion and they may appear several times. Surgical abortion is a common cause of infertility.
- The use of drugs provoking miscarriage. Many drugs, especially taken within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, may provoke miscarriage. And some women use it to their advantage to get rid of pregnancy.
- Physical reasons. Any trauma of the uterine, blows or falls may cause miscarriage as in the early stages a fetus is not firmly attached to the uterine wall.
- Stress and bad habits. Problems with nutrition, alcoholism, smoking or taking drugs are common causes of miscarriage. Psychological tension may also lead to spontaneous abortion. However, a woman should not take sedatives herself as many drugs are prohibited in pregnancy.
Symptoms of early miscarriage
In some cases, especially in the first days or weeks of pregnancy, miscarriage may occur without woman’s awareness about her pregnancy. It is difficult to distinguish menstruation from miscarriage in this situation. Spontaneous abortion occurs after delayed menstruation and it is characterized by a massive loss of blood with clots or a big clot reminding of a sac and severe pain.
The signs of early miscarriage:
- Pain in the lower abdomen, perineum, and lower back (intensity of the pain is different but it is aggravated shortly before miscarriage);
- Vaginal bloody-tinged discharge (the amount of blood and its color is different in each woman).
Described clinical presentation does not always indicate spontaneous abortion but it is the sign to consult a doctor immediately.
How to detect early miscarriage in the second trimester of pregnancy:
- Vaginal bleeding;
- Painful urination and blood in urine;
- Cutting or nagging pain in the belly, paleness, weakness (these are the signs of internal hemorrhage);
- Watery discharge (delivery waters);
- Lower abdominal pain (does not necessarily occur).
If you notice the symptoms of early miscarriage, immediately search for medical assistance as these signs may indicate not only spontaneous abortion but ectopic pregnancy as well.
How to diagnose early miscarriage?
To diagnose spontaneous abortion is not difficult. A gynecologist examines a woman and defines whether the size of the uterine complies with the pregnancy stage. A doctor assess uterine muscular tone and the openness of the neck. If there are discharge, a doctor evaluates its nature and amount. Ultrasound is the most common and accurate method to evaluate the ovum in the uterus. A specialist can say exactly if there is a risk of miscarriage.
However, it is more reasonable to have all the necessary examinations before pregnancy to exclude conditions which can lead to miscarriage.
What should you do if you notice the signs of early miscarriage?
First of all, visit a doctor. In the first two stages, there is a chance to save a baby.
What should a woman do to save her baby:
- Strict bed rest;
- Avoidance of psychological stress;
- Emotional relaxation;
- The use of hormonal drugs;
- Cervical stitch (in advanced cases and in uterine pathologies);
- Day and night medical observation (inpatient care).
In the early stages of pregnancy health and life of a mother are in priority, so any threat to her health is regarded a contradiction to the therapy for fetus saving.
If complete abortion occurs, no other additional procedures are required. The woman is examined to find out the cause and to prevent miscarriage in the future.
Incomplete miscarriage is a more complicated urgent condition which poses danger for a mother’s life. The only possible treatment is scraping after miscarriage to remove remaining membranes, placenta and blood clots. This procedure is necessary to prevent uterine bleeding and infection of the female reproductive system.
Consequences of miscarriage
Incomplete miscarriage, there are no risks of negative consequences and a woman can return to her usual daily routine shortly after it. Women who try to provoke miscarriage themselves or those who use the drugs provoking miscarriage without prescription, place their life at risk.
The most serious condition leading to death is continuous uterine bleeding. A woman loses a great amount of blood and can die because of it. This condition may develop sepsis and fever.
One more adverse effect is infection in the reproductive system which is accompanied by pain, fever and serous discharge.
If a woman delays her visit to a doctor after spontaneous miscarriage, she has a very high risk to remain infertile for all her life. Sometimes women who tried to get rid of pregnancy themselves, need a surgical interference.
Rehabilitation and pregnancy after early miscarriage
Time needed for rehabilitation differs and depends on the consequences of miscarriage. However, before having sex after miscarriage, it is necessary to consult a doctor and find out the reason of miscarriage.
When a woman may get pregnant after miscarriage depends on the cause of it. Sometimes a woman needs a long-term and hard treatment and in some situations, she can get pregnant in several months. Spontaneous miscarriage is a very individual condition.
If it happened so that a woman get pregnant shortly after miscarriage, she should be very carefully observed by doctors. However, previous miscarriage is not necessarily a risk factor.
How to prevent early miscarriage?
The main preventive measures include pregnancy planning, examinations before getting pregnant and elimination of risk factors. To avoid miscarriage, a woman needs:
- To have a genetic testing in a specialized medical center (her partner also needs this testing);
- To visit all health specialists;
- To define her and her partner’s blood type and Rh to prevent incompatibility;
- To give up all her bad habits long before pregnancy;
- To avoid excessive emotional stress and physical loads;
- To exclude sexually transmitted disease;
- To have a blood test to check her immunity against roseola.
A woman should undergo all the routine examinations in the first trimester of pregnancy and be very careful.
She should avoid traumas, emotional stress, physical loads and do her best to be in a good mood. Any unusual symptoms, even insignificant ones, are the reason to visit a doctor.
How to provoke miscarriage?
If pregnancy is unwanted, a woman faces a problem how to provoke miscarriage in the early stages. The most reasonable solution is to visit a gynecologist, Abortions is a legal procedure if pregnancy is up to 12 weeks. All the efforts to get rid of pregnancy without a medical consultation will lead to dangerous consequences. A woman can die or remain infertile forever.