Eczema: symptoms and treatment
Eczema is a dermatological disease that affects the surface layers of the skin and is allergenic. Such an ailment can affect at any age and in any area of the skin. The disease is characterized by a bright reddening of the skin and the formation of a large number of vesicles.
Causes of Development
Today, the exact causes of eczema are not established. Many scientists believe that for the onset of this ailment the huge contribution is made by the nervous system. Not the last role in the formation of this condition is allocated to the endocrine system, which negatively affects the nervous system, resulting in the formation of eczematous dermatitis.
Predisposing factors of the disease include:
- hypovitaminosis (B6);
- lack of micronutrients;
- lack of unsaturated fatty acids;
- helminthic invasions;
- pathological process in the digestive system
- cholecystitis (inflammatory process in the gallbladder)
- intestinal dysbacteriosis
- hereditary factor
- Dismetabolic nephropathy (pathological process in the kidneys).
What is eczema we have already figured out, let’s go on to a more detailed description of its manifestations. Symptoms of the disease have an acute inflammatory character, which is accompanied by a serous inflammatory process in the skin. Eczematous dermatitis is of the following types:
The main focus of the disease is the face and hands. Often diagnose an ailment can be on the head. In acute eczematous dermatitis, the symptoms are characterized by numerous rashes. After the opening of the vesicles in their place, small point erosions emerge that release the serous fluid.
Moistening eczema is a dermatological disease, all the symptoms of which are concentrated on the hands and feet. There are cases when the disease affects large parts of the body. With self-care of the disease, after some time, wet eczema again reminds of itself, but only in large size. As a rule, this is chronic eczema, for which the stages of remission and exacerbation are characteristic.
Such eczema is diagnosed in children and adults. Initially, it has an acute phase of the flow with different relapses in the future. After a while, there is chronic eczema with periodic exacerbations.
Wet eczema can have the following types:
- Seborrheic eczema.
- Microbial eczema.
- Dyshidrotic eczema.
Microbial eczema affects those areas of the skin where abrasions, wounds, fistulas, and scratches are present. It is characterized by a very precise limited shape and detachment at the edges. After the microbial eczema struck the skin, lamellar crusts form on it, after removal of which a wetting surface appears.
Microbial eczema, in more detail with which you can see in the photo, affects the back of the hands, the shin and the scalp. Incorrect therapy or trauma to the affected area is a direct cause of allergic rash. Microbe eczema, the rashes of which hit the human skin a second time, will be accompanied by a large number of wet erosive areas. The result of this process will be that microbial eczema will go to the true. Microbial eczema may be treatable, but an integrated approach is important here.
Seborrheic eczema is a disease characterized by a disruption in the functioning of the sebaceous glands. Seborrheic eczema affects such areas of the body:
- Axillary hollows
- ear, nasolabial folds.
Seborrheic eczema and its symptoms are not associated with hair loss. The reasons for which seborrheic eczema may occur are low immunity accompanied by chronic gastrointestinal diseases, rhinitis and sinusitis. Seborrheic eczema, which can be seen in the photo, can be formed due to hormonal imbalance and a lack of vitamins in the body.
Seborrheic eczema looks like this:
- plaques of yellow or pinkish color;
- peeling, severe itching
- When removing scales, a wetting surface is formed.
Seborrheic eczema can have complications, the cause of which is the secondary infection of elements of the rash, the formation of ostiofolliculitis, folliculitis, hydradenitis, streptoderma, etc.
This type of disease occurs due to damage by chemical, mechanical or physical stimuli. Such an ailment can be caused by the following factors:
True eczema may have a different name — idiopathic. It is characterized by the following symptoms:
- acute-inflammatory puffiness with further occurrence of rashes
- after the opening of the bubbles serous wells are formed — point erosions
- Over time, the serous fluid dries up to form grayish-yellow crusts.
True eczema can occur in the following stages:
True eczema, which can be seen in the photo, causes severe itching, insomnia, neurotic disorders. Very rarely the disease affects one site, and inflammation foci exist without clear boundaries.
First, eczema appears on the face, and then it affects the brushes, the entire skin. All rashes have a symmetrical character, are prone to subsequent damage to the trunk, upper and lower extremities.
When the inflammatory phenomena have decreased, they are replaced by wetting. It is characterized by the formation of crusts, itching, scaling. If the valuable eczema lasts a very long time, the result of this process becomes the formation of calluses and cracks. As a rule, the disease can be complicated by a pyogenic infection. Therefore, chronic eczema develops over time.
Dyshidrotic eczema focuses on the palms, soles. It is characterized by the formation of bubbles, which eventually dissolve, dry up and lead to the formation of urgently purulent crusts. Over time, the dyshidrotic eczema can affect the hands and feet. Often, the dyshidrotic eczema is expressed in the form of trophic changes of the nail plate.
Atopic dermatitis or eczema is a skin disease that affects a large number of people. Most often it is children’s eczema.
As a rule, atopic eczema, which can be seen in the photo, has an allergic origin, is most diagnosed in children. Having passed the 3-year mark, the child completely recovers. If this did not happen, then the relay takes chronic eczema, which can be very difficult to cure.
Such eczema is more common in children, it affects the face and the surface of the skin that contact the diapers. In most cases, such phenomena occur in childhood and adolescence. But today you can meet people who are diagnosed with atopic eczema at a late age. As a rule, this ailment is allergic, but it gives off a nervous disease that has symptoms of eczema that are not associated with allergies.
Dry eczema is an eczematous dermatitis, which is characterized by excessive dryness of the skin and the appearance of cracks in it. For this, the ailment is characterized by a slow development, the result of which can be chronic eczema with a bright pronounced seasonality. Dry eczema progresses in winter due to dry air.
The presented disease affects both women and men alike. In most cases, dry eczema is diagnosed in people with atopic dermatitis. A disease can develop on any part of the body, but most of all it affects the skin of the extremities.
Dry eczema has symptoms similar to those of eczematous dermatitis in the acute phase:
- excessive dryness of the skin
- inflammation of the skin
- redness of the skin;
- bubbles with liquid.
Coin-like eczema is a disease accompanied by generalized rounded foci, which is characterized by severe itching. The men are most affected by this disease. Coin-like eczema, which can be seen in the photo, has an unexplained etiology.
This kind of eczematous dermatitis looks like this:
- clear contours are seen in the vesicles;
- itching and flaking
- the presence of wet foci.
Coin-like eczema is considered a disease that is very difficult to treat. Taking into account all the symptoms, this ailment is very similar to the fungal skin lesion and psoriasis.
Varicose eczema is a chronic form of this disease. It affects the lower limbs. Most often, varicose eczema, which can be seen in the photo, occurs in women after 50 years.
How to cure eczema? Therapeutic measures include taking medications and other traditional remedies. Today very often people resort to the treatment of eczema on the face, arms and legs at home. Taking into account the type of pathological process, the treatment of eczema is reduced to the appointment of the following drugs:
- external forms of corticosteroids
- antipruritic drugs
- antibacterial ointments
- antifungal drugs
- vitamins B1, C and B6;
- sedatives (valerian, tranquilizers)
- desensitizing gels and ointments
In addition, an important role in the treatment plays a diet with eczema, balneotherapy and physiotherapy.
How to treat eczema with external means? Distinguish the following most effective ointments from eczema:
- antifungal ointment from eczema with ketoconazole
- salicylic ointment from eczema
- Celestoderm (glucocorticoid cream based on betamethasone);
- boric ointment (aseptic, made from boric acid)
- Triderm (combined medicine with anti-allergic, antifungal, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effect)
- Wilkinson’s ointment.
If eczema on the face, arms and legs is in a complicated form, then hormonal ointments based on hydrocortisone are used for its treatment.
A diet with eczema is an important component of effective treatment. Such patients need to limit the use of the following foods and foods:
- liquid and easily digestible carbohydrates;
- sharp and salty dishes
- extractives and canned goods
Be sure to include porridge, milk dishes, greens, vegetables, boiled meat and fruits in your diet. Diet with eczema should be selected only by a doctor, only so you can achieve early results and stop all unpleasant manifestations of this disease.
Treatment of eczema folk remedies is based on the following recipes:
- Grate potatoes, wrap the gruel in gauze and apply to the affected area. In addition to applying lotions at home, you need to include this product in your diet.
- A lot of tar from home must be done after one spoon of tar is mixed with three tablespoons of fish oil and a spoonful of apple cider vinegar.
- Do homemade appliques based on fresh cabbage and egg white
- Dehydrated fish scales should be grinded with a coffee grinder before flour is formed. You can apply to wounds at home after you have mixed the resulting flour with fish oil.
Eczematous dermatitis is a skin disease characterized by unpleasant manifestations. Treatment of the disease depends on the stage and form of the disease. To achieve maximum effect, it is better to use complex treatment.