Endocarditis: symptoms and treatment
Endocarditis is an inflammatory process that occurs in the inner shell of the heart (endocarditis). The main cause of its development is infection, but it is not necessary to exclude other pathologies. The disease can equally affect both male and female populations. Very often, a disease overtakes the body of people taking various drugs. A tendency to develop a pathological process is also present in small patients, so it is important to know the causes and symptoms of pathology in order to prevent the development of severe complications.
Causes of Development
The most diverse factors can provoke infective endocarditis. Their recognition guarantees a positive effect of treatment. The most important causes of the inflammatory process in the endocardium are:
- connective tissue disease of diffuse nature
- poisoning by chemical elements
Manifestations of endocarditis
Symptoms of endocarditis appear equally in all patients at different stages of the disease. They can not recognize the cause of the disease, but they arise against the background of a lack of oxygen in the tissues. To diagnose certain complaints the patient is not enough, because the symptoms are very similar to other pathological conditions. But they are very important for the victims themselves. Symptoms of infective endocarditis indicate a malfunction in the work of our «motor», so it is necessary to urgently consult a therapist.
Infective endocarditis has the following manifestations:
- increase in body temperature;
- increased sweating
- skin diseases;
- eye manifestations
- pain syndrome in the muscles and head.
This symptom is found in almost all people affected by infectious endocarditis. Initially, the temperature is moderate — 37-37, 5 degrees. After a few days they reach a dangerous level of 39-40 degrees. This condition is due to the peculiarities of the causative agent of pathology.
Very often, fever is the consequences of the influence of specific components. In the inflammatory process in the inner shell of the human «motor» in the role of these substances are the products of the vital activity of the pathogen. After penetrating into the plasma, they affect the center responsible for the thermoregulation, and cause a rise in temperature.
When fever is absent or there is a slight increase in temperature, this is typical for the following category of people:
- Older people
- after a stroke;
- with severe heart failure
- with elevated uric acid in the plasma.
Complicating the diagnosis is the fact that a slight rise in temperature is not accompanied with symptoms of the heart. The fever persists for 3-4 weeks.
This condition involves involuntary contraction of muscle tissue, manifested as a tremor or convulsive state. Chills — this is a characteristic manifestation of sepsis, as a result of which there is a movement of bacteria in the plasma and damage to their internal organs. Infective endocarditis manifests itself in the form of chills at the time of increased body temperature.
The root cause of the fact that a person begins to sweat heavily is a fever. The allocation of sweat contributes to a decrease in the temperature of the victim. In sepsis, which causes infective endocarditis, this symptom worries the victim, usually at night.
Since harmful agents of infectious nature affect the heart with a tidal flow, most people with endocarditis can detect damage to the vascular walls. Manifestations of this condition consist in the formation on the skin of a small rash, redness.
The mechanism of the formation of eye symptoms resembles skin. They include a number of signs that form point bleeding in the eye area. Such a symptom the patient can find in himself. There is a pathological process of red pigmentation on a conjunctiva of a small size. You can detect them yourself if you move the lower eyelid downward.
While on an examination with an ophthalmologist, Rota spots can be seen. They are areas of hemorrhage that affect the fiber of the eyes. They can be identified only during the diagnosis of the fundus.
Painful sensations in the head and muscles
Symptoms of this kind are visited by people who have infectious endocarditis. If a person is struck by another form of the disease, then headaches and muscle pains are absent. The causes of such formations — intoxication of the body, caused by the multiplication of microbes. Often they coincide with the first stage of temperature increase.
This condition is characterized by symptoms of the defeat of the heart valves. At the first stages of development, rheumatoid endocarditis does not cause any serious manifestations. To establish the exact diagnosis is possible only during a thorough cardiological examination and according to the results of laboratory studies. Formation of the disease at a late stage leads to the formation of symptoms of inadequate work of the heart. Rheumatic endocarditis and its signs begin to affect other organs and systems.
The ailment is often limited to the manifestations of the heart. Therefore, patients do not experience any serious manifestations of endocarditis.
Septic form of the disease
Septic endocarditis is a special form of sepsis, the characteristic features of which is the defeat of the heart valves. Bacterial endocarditis is classified by the nature of the course or presence of the accompanying disease.
Considering the nature of the inflammatory process, acute, subacute and protracted septic endocarditis is isolated. The acute form lasts about 14 days, subacute — 3 months, protracted — worries people for months and even years. Today, doctors note that acute forms are gone, so diagnose subacute and protracted. Bacterial endocarditis with regard to background pathology is: primary and secondary.
Septic endocarditis manifests itself in the following form:
- hemorrhage (discharge of blood from the vessels) into the conjunctiva of the eye;
- thickening in the form of knots on the palms;
- finger exhaustion
- hemorrhage in the skin.
Disease in small patients
Infectious endocarditis in children is represented by an inflammatory lesion of the endocarditis of the heart. This pathological process has an infectious breed.
Often, the disease serves as a complication of heart disease, congenital or chronic, and especially after surgery. Various types of viruses, fungi contribute to the formation of a defect. Often the cause of an illness lies in the defects of the immune system, the focus of chronic infection. With infective endocarditis in small patients, mortality is very high.
Allocate the congenital and acquired form of the disease. The main symptoms of childhood infectious endocarditis include:
- Rapid weight loss
- increased sweating
- temperature rise in the evening
- joint and muscle pain.
The disease can begin to be acute and accompanied by a rapid formation of symptoms. However, most often the first stage of the pathology proceeds slowly and imperceptibly. The duration of the process is sometimes prolonged and difficult to treat.
With the passage of a certain time, infective endocarditis takes a generalized character. As a result, damage is inflicted on other organs. Infectious endocarditis in small patients can cause complications such as blood clots, resulting in blockage of the vessels of the internal organs and the brain. Against the background of insufficient work of the heart there is difficulty breathing, pallor and cyanosis of the skin, puffiness. Symptoms of the disease are so diverse that it is very difficult to establish the disease immediately.
For the diagnosis, the patient must undergo a certain examination. Only after this, the doctor will be able to accurately establish infective endocarditis and prescribe effective therapy. Diagnostics includes:
- listening to the heart, during which you can detect gross noise
- bacterial culture of the plasma.
When the results of a complete examination in the patient’s hands, you can go directly to your doctor. Try to pass all the tests as quickly as possible, since the time spent may later affect your health and the effectiveness of the subsequent treatment.
Treatment of infective endocarditis includes a set of measures to eliminate the inflammatory process in the inner shell of the human «motor». Most often involved in the process of antibiotic therapy and surgical intervention. If there is a formation of heart disease, then treatment should be directed to its correction. If a patient is suspected of infectious endocarditis, the patient should be urgently hospitalized.
When treating endocarditis with antibiotics, you should discuss this with your doctor. Their appointment is based on the degree of sensitivity. The course should not be less than 4-6 weeks. As a rule, a specialist prescribes a complex of medicinal preparations to the patient in order to achieve maximum effect. It can be:
- Ampicillin-Sulbactam with Gentamicin
- Vancomycin and ciprofloxacin.
In addition to antibiotic medicines, the treatment of infective endocarditis involves drugs that have effects on immunity.
If there is a disease not of a bacterial nature, then for the treatment of endocarditis it is necessary to take into account the specificity of the underlying ailment. When endocrine pathology is diagnosed, the patient is obliged to pass tests for hormones and be treated under the supervision of an endocrinologist. Endocarditis, which is the result of intoxication, can be cured by using a certain type of toxin.
Elimination of the inflammatory process by surgical means involves the removal of the affected area of the heart valve with further prosthetics. If this is possible, the patient is performed a plastic surgery to maintain his own valves. After the rehabilitation period, the patient should be under the supervision of doctors. For half a year, you need to go for examinations every month in order to detect a possible return of infection and control of overall well-being. Further inspections should be held twice a year.
Complications from the presented disease occur due to growths on the heart valves. They can disconnect and with the flow of blood hit the rest of the organs and systems. If they are stuck in a small vessel, then this will cause an acute shortage of blood supply, which will result in death of the tissue. You can also defeat the kidneys. There is such a complication in the form of glomerulonephritis, abscess and infarction of the organ. The nervous system gives complications in the form of a stroke, meningitis. The most dangerous complication is the formation of thrombi in the pulmonary artery. This condition leads to death.
If you do not want your body to pick up such a pathology, you should know the main activities that can protect you from endocarditis. Prophylaxis involves the following series of actions:
- When using narcotic drugs, they should be urgently abandoned because they are more likely to get infected with such people.
- Whoever has artificial valves or chronic heart disease is always under the control of a specialist.
- Constantly monitor the quality of medical equipment and find out about the quality of the sterilization.
Endocarditis can affect every person, both an adult and a child. The reason for this pathology lies in the defeat of the body by an infectious agent. The disease manifests chills, fever and headaches. Cure this state is possible, but only if the complex approach. If you delay with therapy, you can get a series of unpleasant and dangerous complications, which will be treated very hard afterwards.