Endometrioid ovarian cyst: symptoms and treatment
The endometrioid cyst of the ovary is a new formation on the surface of the ovary, it is filled with a «chocolate» liquid, which consists of the coagulated blood released during menstruation. Under certain circumstances, the cyst does not show symptoms and does not increase in size, while in others it is characterized by acute pains, severe discharge during menstruation, and impossibility to become pregnant in large sizes. Treatment is performed only by performing an operation, followed by a prolonged postoperative hormonal therapy. An effective method of prevention is the use of folk remedies.
The degree of cyst increase is rather difficult to predict. In some cases, it can persist in its original dimensions throughout life. In general, the disease occurs without symptoms and is only detected when a woman can not get pregnant for a long time. The doctor often takes this disorder for another illness, incorrectly diagnoses, which can lead to the appearance of serious complications.
This disease is the third most common among the fairer sex from twenty to fifty years. The disease received such a name, because it develops against a background of benign growth of the uterine limits, which is called endometriosis, but not localized in it. Neoplasms depend on the number of hormones in the body and are activated during menstruation or pregnancy.
To date, medicine is completely unaware of the cause of the formation of the endometrioid ovarian cyst, there are only a few favorable factors for the occurrence of:
- hereditary predisposition
- abnormal course of menstruation, in which particles of the endometrium move together with the blood and adapt to the flora of organs such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes or abdominal cavity
- Elevated estrogen levels
- continued use of intrauterine contraceptives
- weakened immunity;
- the pathological functioning of the thyroid gland or its complete removal
- a critical increase in body weight;
- long-term stress factors;
- inflammatory processes in the abdominal organs
- gynecological operations that have broken the structure of the uterus
- artificial delivery.
The location of the disease is divided into:
- Endometrioid cyst of the right ovary — in addition to manifestation in the form of an irregular cycle of menstruation, can occur with disorders in the functioning or inflammation of organs such as the intestine or bladder. The reason can be considered an unsuccessful attempt to become pregnant;
- Endometrioid cyst of the left ovary (similarly with the previous species). It measures from a few millimeters and can grow to fifteen centimeters. The tumor fills a dark brown liquid. Diagnosed with ultrasound;
- The endometrioid cyst of both ovaries is very common, because the disease is bilateral. This state of the disease suggests that in the female body there was a hormonal failure. Diagnosis of each tumor is carried out separately.
According to the degree of development, there are several stages of the disease:
- initial — tumors by volume do not reach a centimeter, affect one of the ovaries;
- of medium severity — the number of tumors increases, their size changes to six centimeters. Localization, as before, on one of the ovaries
- severe — cysts spread to both ovaries, their size is more than six centimeters, foci of endometriosis are found on neighboring organs
- complicated — cysts exceed ten centimeters, affecting not only both ovaries, but also nearby organs.
The main manifestation of the endometrioid cyst of the ovary can be considered unsuccessful attempts to conceive or complete infertility — very often this is the only manifestation of the disease. However, the symptoms of the endometrioid ovarian cyst are:
- abnormal course of menstruation. Allocations can be abundant, the process itself can be too painful and quite long (more than seven days)
- painful sensations in the abdomen of different intensity. The most acute manifest during sexual intercourse;
- Disorders of the intestines in the form of constipation, as well as the bladder, manifested in a violation of the emission of urine. This is due to an increase in cyst volume;
- general weakness of the body
- nausea accompanied by vomiting
- slight increase in body temperature.
The degree of expression of symptoms directly depends on the size of the neoplasm. Reduce the intensity of the symptoms of the disease can be folk remedies, but thereby increase the risk of complications.
Complications of such a disease will arise only in the case of improper treatment or untimely recourse to the clinic. The complications include:
- cyst breakthrough
- flow of fluid that was contained in the neoplasm, its mixture with blood and spread throughout the body. This process in medicine is called peritonitis. Acute peritonitis can cause sepsis and death
- bleeding in the abdominal cavity
- reincarnation of benign formation into malignant;
- Ovarian rupture, which can be caused by a strong increase in cyst size
- the inability to conceive;
- threat of miscarriage (only in pregnancy).
After the operation to remove the cyst, all painful sensations will pass, a woman can become pregnant. But do not exclude the possibility of a recurrence of this violation.
The most dangerous to health is the rupture of the cyst, which can happen to every woman, provided that the cyst has become very large. The signs of the rupture are:
- a sudden increase in body temperature to values close to forty degrees;
- abrupt and unceasing pain in the abdomen;
- vaginal discharge of unusual consistency and chocolate color
- constipation, difficulty in releasing gases
- bleeding in the uterus
- loss of consciousness
- Decrease in pressure.
If a woman has a breakthrough, she should immediately be taken to the hospital, where the doctor will provide the proper therapy. After a rupture of the cyst, the chances of getting pregnant are reduced.
To confirm the exact diagnosis, the patient is:
- gynecological examination
- Ultrasonography of the pelvic organs. The best way to carry out this process is to enter the sensor directly through the vagina;
- MRI and CT;
- A biopsy is performed in order to confirm or disprove the transformation of a tumor into an oncology.
Treatment of the endometrioid ovarian cyst is selected for each female representative individually and is performed taking into account the causes of the onset, the stage of the disease and the degree of expression of the symptoms. The main method of therapy consists of taking the patient hormonal drugs and funds that will artificially introduce a woman during menopause. Anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anesthetic substances are prescribed.
Surgery is resorted to in case of ineffectiveness of drug therapy, if the tumor exceeds the size of five centimeters, with the rupture or injury of nearby organs.
The most common way to remove a cyst is to perform a laparoscopy operation. The advantages of such intervention are that the woman will not have traces after the operation, and also this method will allow to preserve the integrity of the reproductive organs, which increases the percentage of the opportunity to become pregnant. The surgical intervention goes in this way — several small incisions are made on the woman’s abdomen, into which an endoscope is inserted with laser attached, scissors, and needles with carbon dioxide that fill the cavity in which the operation is performed. After removal, the patient must undergo a treatment course that reduces the risk of recurrence (with the help of hormones and folk remedies).
After the surgery, women lose the pain syndrome, the cycle of menstruation comes back to normal, there is an opportunity to become pregnant.
In medicine, there were several cases when during pregnancy, due to the action of hormones, the tumor dissolves itself, but in most cases it happens on the contrary — the cyst increases and breaks, which threatens the termination of pregnancy. Therefore, women who have decided to have a baby are recommended to perform surgery to remove the cyst before planning pregnancy.
If the cyst was found during the gestation period, but was not large and did not affect other organs, the doctor, together with the future mother, decides to keep the pregnancy, having warned the woman about possible threats.
During the recovery period after surgery, you can use the folk remedies yourself, but before that you should consult your doctor. Such techniques include recipes of decoctions and tinctures from:
- dandelion root
- Burdock leaves and celandine
- Acacia flowers
- collecting chamomile, coltsfoot and clover
- Viburnum and honey juice
Phytotherapy with folk remedies is based on:
- juniper, camomile and lavender
- bark of oak, birch and violets
- geranium and cherry.
By popular means of therapy of this type, cysts are forbidden to use women during pregnancy and during breastfeeding of an infant.
Prophylactic methods from the endometrioid ovarian cyst consist in:
- Pregnancy planning, early detection and treatment of gynecological diseases
- timely treatment of hormonal disorders
- strengthening immunity and rationalizing nutrition
- the passage of preventive examinations and a gynecologist several times a year;
- A regular visit to an obstetrician-gynecologist and a woman’s consultation (for women during pregnancy).