Enteritis: symptoms and treatment
Enteritis is an acute inflammatory lesion of the small intestine, which leads to direct impairment of its functionality and dystrophic disorders in the gastric mucosa. In more severe cases, the degeneration of the whole gastrointestinal tract can develop. The disease can strike both an adult and a child. The most common is chronic enteritis.
Acute enteritis can result from such causes:
- diseases of viral origin
- malnutrition — overeating fatty, acute, alcohol abuse
- Poisoning by poisonous products
- poisoning with toxic substances
- GI tract infection
In addition, acute enteritis, as well as chronic enteritis, can develop against the background of such diseases:
- acute renal failure
- radiation sickness
- autoimmune processes.
Alcohol abuse and the constant consumption of coarse food (convenience foods, fast food, fatty and spicy) almost always leads to gastrointestinal problems, including chronic enteritis.
Symptoms of enteritis are pronounced. However, many at the initial stage of the disease development confuse it with food poisoning and do not go to the doctor in a timely manner.
There are such symptoms of enteritis:
- liquid stool (up to 10-15 times a day)
- elevated temperature;
- headache, weakness
- white plaque on the tongue
- rumbling in the intestines
With chronic enteritis, the symptoms are even more pronounced:
- pain in the lower abdomen;
- weakness, impotence
- abundant plaque in the language.
In some cases, there may be a sharp increase in blood pressure and tremor of the extremities. Therefore, with such symptoms should immediately consult a doctor. Especially if the symptomatology is observed in children. A child of primary school age is most susceptible to the development of such a disease, since the body has not yet developed the necessary protective reaction.
Types of Disease
In medicine, these types of enteritis are distinguished:
- parvovirus enteritis
- rotavirus enteritis.
It is worth noting that not all the above forms represent a danger to human life. Parvovirus enteritis is dangerous only for pets — cats and dogs. As a rule, it is rarely transmitted to a person.
Coronavirus enteritis is observed only in pets and for human life there is no threat. Just like with parvovirus enteritis, treatment should begin immediately.
Rotavirus enteritis is an infectious disease of the small intestine. As a rule, this type of illness is diagnosed in children, very rarely in elderly people. Most often, an ailment is diagnosed in a child under 3 years old.
Symptomatic in this type of disease fully corresponds to the general clinical picture described above. An infectious agent can be transmitted in three ways:
- through household appliances, food
- from a sick person to a healthy one
- through water (rivers, lakes, public pools)
In most cases, children who have had rotavirus enteritis get immunity.
The incubation period usually lasts from 15 hours to 2 days. The most acute clinical picture is observed in the first hours of development. Children may experience severe intoxication, and even loss of consciousness for several minutes. The child needs immediate medical attention, since the process of dehydration may start because of frequent, loose stools.
Treatment of rotavirus enteritis in children is complex — diet and pathogenetic therapy. At the initial stage of the disease, the infection is well treated and there are no complications. But in order to assign a correct, effective course of treatment, you should conduct a survey and find out the cause of the development of pathology.
It is worth paying special attention to the fact that a significant improvement in well-being with rotavirus enteritis is observed after 5-6 days of treatment. But quarantine should be extended for at least 2 weeks.
Granulomatous enteritis is peculiar to domestic animals and cattle. In humans, this form of the disease is referred to as Crohn’s disease. The clinical picture almost completely corresponds to chronic enteritis. However, in children under 5 years old, at the initial stage of development, the ailment can practically not be manifested. It is especially difficult to diagnose the disease in newborns.
The causes of the ailment may be as follows:
- genetic predisposition
- infectious diseases of the digestive tract.
Children may have extraintestinal symptoms:
- limb tremor.
If any signs of enteritis are seen in both adults and children, the doctor should be consulted immediately. Self-medication can only aggravate the situation and lead to serious complications.
As a rule, a thorough examination and anamnesis of the disease is sufficient for the initial diagnosis. In addition, laboratory tests are additionally assigned:
- Absorption test
- a general blood test.
Only after that the gastroenterologist can prescribe the correct treatment of enteritis.
Since the initial signs of enteritis are similar to food poisoning, the patient does not turn to the doctor in a timely manner, which significantly aggravates the situation — the acute stage of the disease can go on to chronic enteritis.
If the patient is diagnosed with enteritis in both acute and chronic forms, treatment is performed only in the hospital. In addition to drug treatment is required a strict diet and bed rest.
Since a significant deficiency of enzymes is observed during the progression of the disease, special preparations are prescribed to restore the digestive tract:
Please note that the dosage of medications, the regimen of their administration, is prescribed only by the attending physician. Unauthorized use of drugs is unacceptable.
In addition to medications, the patient must follow a strict diet and bed rest. Diet with enteritis excludes the reception of such food:
- Acute, salty
- semi-finished products
- food cooked on fatty broth
Instead, a diet with enteritis involves the inclusion in the daily diet of such products:
- porridge on the water
- dairy products (milk excluded)
- strong, not sweet tea
- abundant drinking.
If you treat the enteritis correctly, with the intake of all prescribed medications and compliance with the diet regime, then acute symptoms disappear for 4-5 days. Full recovery occurs after 1.5-2 weeks of hospitalization.
Do self-medication, even folk remedies, is unacceptable. To treat ailment it is necessary only after exact statement of the diagnosis, and only in a hospital. Absorptive drugs and a strict diet almost always give a positive result.
Prevention of this ailment is quite simple. To do this, follow a few simple rules:
- rational nutrition;
- compliance with all hygiene standards
- Careful handling of all products
If the infection has got into the body, you should immediately contact the gastroenterologist, find out the causes of the pathology and begin the correct treatment.