Enterobiosis: Symptoms and Treatment
Enterobiosis is a parasitic disease that occurs in humans. Enterobiosis, the symptoms of which are manifested in the defeat of the intestine, the itching arising in the region of the anus, as well as in the general allergization of the body, is caused by the action of pinworms, which, in fact, are the causative agents of the disease.
Clinical manifestations of the disease have a different character, which is determined by the intensity of infection, the frequency of reinfusion (recurrent morbidity), as well as the peculiarities of individual patient reactions in each specific case.
Primary invasion lasts for two days, its acute phase can be on the order of 5-7 days. The period of parasitologic incubation begins from the moment of female excretions, which actually determines the duration of the phase of the chronic course of the disease in one infection. In this case, the duration of the period is on the order of 35-70 days.
An invasive person is the only source for pinworm invasion. Oral infection occurs, and often enterobiasis is defined as a disease of dirty hands.
The unbearable itching that occurs when crampons from the rectum crawls out of the rectum, and also because of the movements that they carry out, leads to combing the invaded corresponding area . Thus, the hands become dirty, after which the eggs of the pinworms also appear on other parts of the body — on the hips, the skin of the abdomen, the face.
Additionally noted and getting them on bed and underwear. Later on, when shaking them, eggs of helminths settle already on objects of everyday use, furniture, on the floor and other objects, which, accordingly, creates conditions for subsequent self-infection, whether it be re-invasion or primary infection of people caught in these conditions.
Enterobiosis: symptoms in children
Children are especially prone to enterobiosis. The main symptom of this disease is manifested in severe itching, as well as in the feelings of discomfort that arise, as we have already noted above, in the anus. If the nature of the invasion is insignificant, the duration of the itching, which bothers the sick child, is about three days, during which the migration of the female into the rectum and deposition of eggs is characterized. With the massive nature of the invasion, this symptom can become practically constant, which is explained by the continuous nightly migration of new females into the rectum.
Because of severe itching, there are, again, combing, because the children who are harassing their places are constantly combing. Subsequently, scratching can be supplemented with symptoms in the form of secondary infections. They, in turn, provoke dermatitis and paraproctitis (in which the pararectal tissue is inflamed), sphincteritis (characterized by inflammation of the sphincter tissue), and vulvovaginitis (in girls, which occurs due to the entry of parasites into the sexual gap). In addition, it is also possible the appearance or strengthening of the allergic readiness of the child’s body.
Prolonged infection causes a worsening of the child’s appetite, with depletion occurring not only solely because of a refusal to eat and characteristic digestive disturbances, but also because of poisoning that provokes the products of the helminth’s vital activity.
In addition to these symptoms, it should be noted that the disease proceeds depending on its phase and with a number of other manifestations. In particular, two phases are distinguished:
- The acute phase. The duration of manifestations in time is up to a week.
- Abdominal pain (a mild form of invasion is characterized by non-localized manifestations, severe focus in the iliac region on the right side)
- Feeling of discomfort in the intestines
- Increase in stool (up to 4 times per day)
- Chronic phase. It is characterized by significant polymorphism. With regard to the severity of the symptoms, it is determined by the intensity of the invasion, as well as the frequency of self-infection.
In general, the greater the invasion, the more intense the itch, which can manifest in children not only in the night, but also during the day. The pain also acquires a greater intensity, a swelling of the abdomen arises, the stool becomes fluid and rapid. The urge to act as a defecation becomes painful, and itching can act as a cause of sleep disturbances and frequent urination at night.
The nervous system also reacts in its own way to the presence of helminths in the body. So, neurologic disorders are manifested in headaches, dizziness, possibly a drop in memory. Children become more whimsical and whiny, with problems with concentration.
Enemies of the gastrointestinal tract (enterocolitis, gastritis, etc.) become frequent and serious complications, which are followed by enterobiosis, as well as diseases arising in the perineal zone due to scratching (dermatitis, proctitis and paraproctitis, Eczema, etc.). In girls, enterobiosis also causes vulvitis, vulvovaginitis. When infecting with pinworms, the activity of immunity is significantly reduced.
Enterobiosis: symptoms in adults
Symptomatic in adults is similar to that in children, but compared with children, the course of the disease is not so difficult, not to mention the lesser relevance of complications for them. In some cases, there is no symptoms in patients, but the characteristic manifestations for most cases still occur.
In adults, again, the course of enterobiasis is characterized by its specific stage. If you highlight the main symptoms, then they include the following:
- Moderate itching at night in the anus area
- The insomnia, irritability that comes on the background of itching
- Disappearance of appetite, cases of anorexia are common;
- Urinary incontinence (which is relevant in particular at night);
- Disorders of the intestine (stool is mushy, in some cases, mucus may appear)
- Vulvovaginitis occurs in women due to ingestion of pinworms in the genital tract.
A significant number of pinworms, as well as repeated repeated infection, provokes the following symptoms:
- Physiological symptoms:
- The strongest itch in day and night, combined with nicture (night urination)
- Localized pain on the right side of the abdomen. However, the pain is so intense in the manifestations, which often resembles an attack of appendicitis;
- Tenesmus (false urge to empty the intestines)
- Fluid and frequent stools
- Allergic reactions of various types
- Neurological symptoms:
- Anxious sleep, insomnia
- Increased fatigue;
- Attention Disorder, Memory
Complications of enterobiasis
Enterobiosis can provoke a different type of disease, which include the following:
- Appendicitis, painful sensations for a long time in the appendix area
- Proctitis (inflammation of the rectal mucosa)
- Inflammatory reactions, skin diseases caused by combing the anus (infectious diseases including;)
- Inflammation of the external genital area among female representatives
Given the similarity of enterobiasis with another type of disease, which in turn is associated with certain systems in the body, patients are often sent to specific specialists of a narrow profile, in accordance with the symptoms. In this case, it is important that the selected specialist properly assess the general condition of the patient, if necessary, referring him to a specialist of the required profile.
Treatment of enterobiasis
An important condition for curing a patient is the simultaneity of a number of preventive actions that will prevent re-invasion. In particular, they consist of strict adherence to the hygienic regime, not only by the patient himself, but also by those who contact him. In addition, the invaded environment will need to take measures aimed at simultaneous de-worming. The fastest and most reliable method of cure is the observance of a set of measures that includes medical treatment along with the developed sanitary and hygienic regime.
If you suspect a presence of helminths, as well as for the purpose of appropriate removal and treatment, you should consult an infectious disease specialist.