Eosinophilia: symptoms and treatment


Eosinophilia is a condition of the body in which a relative or absolute increase in the number of eosinophils is diagnosed in the blood. As a consequence, infiltration of other tissues by these cells can be observed. It is worth noting the fact that eosinophilia is not an independent disease. This is a kind of symptom that indicates the presence in the human body of various allergic, infectious, autoimmune and other pathologies.

This pathological condition has no restrictions, regarding sex or age. It occurs with the same frequency in both men and women. The norm of eosinophils in the blood in an adult is from 0.02×10 9 to 0.3×10 9 / liter. Determine eosinophilia can only be done by conducting a laboratory blood test.

Etiology

The main reason for the progression of eosinophilia in humans is the presence in the body of various kinds of diseases, among which:


  • Atopic ailments. A common cause of the increase in the total number of eosinophils in the blood. The level of these blood cells increases on the background of allergic rhinitis, pollinosis, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma and others
  • Immunodeficiency
  • hematological pathologies — acute leukemia, lymphogranulomatosis, anemia
  • Worm infestations. Parasitic diseases are a common cause of the progression of eosinophilia in children. The level of blood cells grows with giardiasis, ascariasis, paragonimosis, malaria, toxocariasis, etc.
  • malignant neoplasms
  • pathology of the lungs
  • disorders in the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract
  • rheumatic ailments
  • A mixed group of diseases that includes chorea, hypoxia, scarlet fever, magnesium deficiency in the body
  • the reception of some synthetic medical products — aspirin, imipramine, diphenhydramine, androgens, estrogens.

Classification

Clinicians distinguish three degrees of development of eosinophilia in humans:


  1. small. The level of these blood cells is increased by no more than 10% of the total number
  2. Moderate. The level rises by 10-20%;
  3. High. Increase of blood cells in excess of 20%.

Depending on the reasons that triggered the progression of this condition, as well as the localization of manifestations, these forms of eosinophilia distinguish:


  • Eosinophilia of the lungs
  • eosinophilia with progression of oncological pathologies
  • allergic nature
  • eosinophilic fasciitis;
  • eosinophilia in asthma
  • Eosinophilic gastroenteritis
  • Eosinophilic cystitis
  • parasitic eosinophilia.

Symptoms

Symptoms directly depend on the background of which ailment this pathological condition developed.

Autoimmune pathologies

In this case, along with an increase in the level of eosinophils, the appearance of such symptoms is noted:


  1. temperature increase (possible increase to critical level)
  2. Anemia
  3. joint pain;
  4. weight loss
  5. multiple organ failure
  6. Hepatosplenomegaly
  7. affection of inflammatory vessels

Parasitic infestations

Together with the increase in eosinophils such symptomatology is observed:


  • pain in the muscular structure
  • lymphadenopathy
  • Leffler’s syndrome
  • tachycardia
  • Hepatosplenomegaly
  • intoxication syndrome;
  • joint pain.

Allergic pathologies, as well as skin ailments


  1. itching;
  2. Urticaria rash
  3. the skin of a person can be heavily overdried or on it may be wetting
  4. formation of skin ulcers
  5. exfoliation of the epidermis (a symptom that develops during severe stages of pathology).

Pulmonary eosinophilia

The most common tissue localization of eosinophilia. Infiltration of pulmonary tissue with eosinophils is observed. This pathological condition combines:






  • Eosinophilic granulomas
  • Eosinophilic pneumonia
  • pulmonary infiltrates
  • Eosinophilic vasculitis of the lungs.

In more rare cases, doctors diagnose a tropical lung form. In medical literature, this condition is also referred to as Weingarten syndrome. The main cause of its progression is the infection of the human body with Vukheria. The following symptoms are observed in patients:


  1. Dry cough of paroxysmal nature. More often the patient worries at night;
  2. Decrease or total absence of appetite
  3. weight loss
  4. Severe eosinophilia in a blood test.

Eosinophilia in children

Eosinophilia is often diagnosed in children who were born prematurely. But doctors call this condition physiological, as only the baby has normal body weight, the level of eosinophils is stabilized.

Frequent causes of increased eosinophils in the blood of children:


  • hookworm;
  • allergic ailments
  • hereditary pathologies
  • parasitic infestations
  • toxocarrosis.

Diagnostics

The most informative method of diagnosis is a blood test. With its help, doctors have the opportunity to assess the level of increase in eosinophils, their percentage. It is worth noting that anemia can occur with eosinophilia.

It is also important to identify the underlying disease that triggered the development of this condition. To this end, clinicians appoint:


  1. Urine analysis
  2. blood biochemistry
  3. a smear from the nasal mucosa
  4. analysis of feces for detecting worm eggs in it
  5. Radiography of the lungs
  6. bronchoscopy and the like.

Therapy

Treatment of eosinophilia does not make sense. It is important to establish precisely the underlying disease, against which the level of these blood cells increased. The treatment of pathology is developed only by the attending physician on the basis of the results of the tests, as well as personal examination.