Epithelioma: Symptoms and Treatment

Epithelioma is a neoplasm that affects the area of ​​the upper layer of the skin — the epithelium, which is why it received such a name. A characteristic feature of the disease is that there is a fairly large number of its clinical options. For today, the causes of such neoplasms on the skin remain unknown, but clinicians identify a wide range of provoking factors. The main risk group is made up of able-bodied and elderly people.



Clinical manifestation will directly depend on the nature of the disease, but the common feature is the appearance on the skin of a nodule that can reach five centimeters.

In the diagnosis, instrumental examination methods predominate, which are aimed at determining the benign or malignant nature of the neoplasm. Treatment of such a disorder, regardless of its nature and form, is always surgical.

Since there are many types of epithelioma, in the international classification of diseases it can be found under several meanings. Code on the ICD 10 — C44.0-C44.9.

Etiology

The causes of the appearance of small nodules on the skin in children and adults remain uncertain, but doctors believe that several factors of unfavorable nature that permanently affect the skin can contribute to this. Thus, among the predisposing sources it is worth highlighting:


  • exposure to radioactive radiation
  • excessive sun exposure;
  • mechanical skin injuries;
  • inflammatory skin diseases
  • the presence of a chronic form of a person such an ailment as eczema
  • genetic predisposition.

In addition, the epithelioma can begin to form in place of the scar.

Classification

The site of tumor localization directly depends on the variety of such skin disease. Classification of the disease involves its division into:


  1. basal cell form — among clinicians this type of malady is considered malignant. But it is noteworthy that education does not give metastasis, despite the fact that it affects not only the upper layer of the skin, but also bones and muscles. Among the rare forms of such a tumor are the self-healing epithelioma and Malerba’s epithelioma;
  2. squamous or spinocellular epithelioma — characterized by rapid growth and spread of metastases
  3. Trichoepithelioma — characterized by benign course and slow progression.

Symptoms

Regardless of the variety of the tumor, in addition to appearing on the skin of the nodules, volumes of several millimeters and not more than five centimeters, the pathology has no other clinical manifestations.

Basal cell epithelioma in the vast majority of cases is localized in the face and neck area, characterized by fairly rapid growth and sprouting into deeper layers.

The self-healing epithelioma is distinguished by the fact that it does not form a nodule, but a small ulcerative defect on the skin. As the disease progresses, a slow growth of the ulcer occurs, which can be accompanied by scarring of some of its zones. Sometimes such a variety of basal cell forms can pass into squamous cell carcinoma.

Necrotizing epithelioma of Malerba is formed from the cells of the sebaceous glands. This kind of pathology is one of the few that a child can suffer. The location of the node localization is:


  • Person;
  • ear area
  • neck area
  • the scalp;
  • Shoulders.

Neoplasm is very dense and mobile, but grows slowly and does not exceed five centimeters in size.

Spinocellular type of formation is formed from a spiky layer of skin, is malignant in nature and is accompanied by metastasis. Neoplasm can be expressed as:





  1. nodes;
  2. plaques;
  3. ulcers

The main site of localization is the skin in the genital area or the perianal zone, as well as the red frame of the lower lip. In the ears, such tumors are rare.

Adenoid cystic epithelioma is often diagnosed in female representatives in the age category after puberty. The color of the formation, which by volume does not exceed a pea, bluish or yellow-white. Very rare is the occurrence of a single knot, the size of a walnut.

Typical localization of such nodes:


  • Person;
  • area of ​​the ears;
  • the scalp.

Sometimes formations appear in the field:


  1. the shoulder girdle;
  2. the anterior wall of the abdominal cavity;
  3. upper and lower limbs;
  4. The cornea of ​​the eye.

Often have a benign course and grow slowly, but in very rare cases can be transformed into a basal cell.

Diagnostics

In order to correctly diagnose a clinician, you need to study the data of instrumental examinations, but before you assign them, he needs:


  • interview the patient for the timing of the appearance of tumors
  • study the patient’s medical history;
  • gather an anamnesis of life
  • perform a thorough skin examination, special attention is paid to the ear area, the scalp and the cornea of ​​the eye.

Laboratory examinations are limited to the study of fluid separating from ulcers.

The epithelium of a necrotic nature requires the following instrumental studies:


  1. dermatoscopy
  2. Ultrasound;
  3. A biopsy is a process of taking a small piece of the tumor for subsequent histological studies. This will make it possible to accurately determine the malignant or benign nature of the disease.

Differential diagnosis involves the elimination of such ailments:


  • red lichen planus
  • psoriasis
  • scleroderma;
  • systemic lupus erythematosus
  • seborrheic keratosis
  • Hydradenite
  • wart
  • squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

Treatment

The only way to get rid of the skin’s epithelioma is surgical removal of the tumor. The operation is carried out in several ways:


  1. cryodestruction
  2. exposure to laser radiation;
  3. electrocoagulation
  4. curettage.

In cases of malignant nature of education, operable treatment is combined with:


  • X-rays by radiotherapy
  • photodynamic therapy
  • Chemotherapy.

Prevention and Forecast

Due to the fact that the necrotizing epithelioma of the skin develops against the background of unknown factors, there are no preventive measures. People need only take care of their skin, protect it from prolonged exposure to sunlight, harmful substances and radiations.

If neoplasms are benign, then the prognosis is favorable — after the operation, the patient fully recovers. The most unfavorable outcome can be observed with spinocellular epithelioma, especially in the presence of metastasis.




In any case, the patient should be inspected annually by a dermatologist.