Epitimpanitis: Symptoms and Treatment


Epitimpanitis is a chronic inflammatory disease, often with a purulent complication that affects the middle ear area. This disease is characterized by damage to the bony formations of the tympanic cavity, often with the formation of cholesteatoma. If treatment is not initiated in a timely manner, chronic purulent epitimpanitis can lead to deterioration or complete hearing loss, with the destruction of anatomical structures.

Etiology

Clinicians identify the following etiological factors that can lead to the development of this disease:


  • Frequent acute otitis media
  • diseases of the upper respiratory tract
  • scarlet fever
  • Measles
  • sclerotic type of mastoid process
  • untimely or incorrect removal of the inflammatory process in the middle ear
  • infectious and viral diseases.

It should be noted that the greatest probability of developing this disease is observed in people with a weakened immune system. With the influence of several etiological factors, epitimpanitis with cholesteatoma appears.

Separately, there are predisposing factors for the development of this disease:


  1. non-observance of personal hygiene
  2. pathological processes that lead to a decrease in the body’s protective functions
  3. frequent and long-term exposure in dusty, cold rooms with high humidity

Symptoms

As a rule, at the initial stage of the disease there is no pronounced clinical picture. In process of aggravation of pathological process, such signs of development of a pathology can be observed:


  • hearing loss is observed in the affected ear
  • Acute pain that can give to the temporal and occipital part of the head
  • feeling of raspiraniya in the patient’s ear due to increased pressure
  • offensive smell from the auricle due to the accumulation of scatol and indole in the lesion;
  • dizziness;
  • Purulent discharge, sometimes with impurities of blood. In some cases, exudate can be observed bone crumbs, which indicates a severe stage of the disease and the beginning of the destruction of anatomical structures;
  • a feeling of heaviness in the head, mainly from the side of the ear.

In such a clinical picture, you should immediately seek medical help, and not self-medicate, as it can lead to irreversible complications.

Diagnostics

If you have the above clinical picture, you should immediately seek medical help from an otolaryngologist. The diagnostic program can include the following activities:


  1. thorough physical examination with an operating microscope
  2. X-ray examination of the temporal part of the head in two projections
  3. CT.

Laboratory survey methods are used when necessary. The treatment program is prescribed only by the otolaryngologist, after carrying out diagnostic procedures and identifying the etiology of the disease.

Treatment

If treatment is started in time, complications can be avoided. Depending on the severity of the development of the pathological process, the tactic of treatment — conservative or surgical — is chosen.

If the destruction of the anatomical structure is observed, then an operation on resection of the pathological focus in the middle ear must be performed. This tactic of treatment allows to exclude relapse of the disease and keeps the patient’s hearing as much as possible for this disease.

Medication therapy includes the use of such drugs:


  • antibiotics
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • glucocorticosteroids;
  • proteolytic enzymes
  • ear drops to relieve acute symptoms.

It should be noted that the conduct of drug therapy is mandatory even for those cases where an operative procedure is performed.





Treatment with folk remedies

Therapy of this disease implies the use of traditional medicine, but only as an addition to the main course of treatment and after agreement with the attending physician.

In this case, folk medicine offers the following tools for the removal of acute symptoms and inhibition of the development of the pathological process:


  1. Herbal decoctions based on herbs that have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effect — celandine, elecampane, medicinal calendula, tripartite sequence
  2. instillation of vodka or juniper alcohol into the diseased ear
  3. lotion from propolis tincture — cotton swabs soaked in tincture should be placed in the ear for a few hours daily
  4. onion juice for instillation into the diseased ear
  5. A mixture of mummies and rose oil for laying in the sore ear.

Such remedies help to remove acute symptoms and stop the development of the disease. However, one must also understand that in some cases such treatment will not be enough. In addition, individual components of prescriptions of traditional medicine in humans can be allergic, which in this case can only exacerbate the development of the pathological process. Therefore, before using the above funds, it is necessary to consult an otolaryngologist.

Possible complications and prognosis

If there is no correct treatment, it is possible to develop such complications:


  • the spread of the inflammatory process to the intracranial region
  • worsening or complete loss of hearing.

It should be noted that the development of the inflammatory process in the intracranial region is likely not only the development of serious complications, but also a lethal outcome.

In general, if the therapy of chronic purulent epitimpanitis is started in time, the formation of serious complications can be avoided.

Prevention

To prevent the development of this disease, it is advisable to apply such recommendations in practice:


  1. diseases of the otolaryngological nature need to be corrected correctly and in a timely manner. Especially, it concerns acute otitis;
  2. strengthening the immune system
  3. In cold, windy weather, you should wear a hat that protects your ears
  4. proper hygiene procedures

If you have this symptomatology, you need to see a doctor, and do not take the medication at your discretion. Also periodically it is necessary to undergo a preventive examination with an otolaryngologist.