Esophagitis: symptoms and treatment

Esophagitis is an inflammatory process in the mucous membrane of the esophagus. It is manifested by heartburn, burning pain behind the chest and violation of the swallowing function. Has a sharp and chronic form. Approximately in 40% of cases at the initial stage occurs without especially expressed symptoms. Inflammation of the esophagus extends to all age categories. Ezofagitis may occur in children up to one year of age who have an esophageal sphincter deficiency.



Etiology

There are many factors that contribute to the development of esophagitis. Often this disease develops due to gastritis, as well as gastric infection.

Also, esophagitis can provoke such infectious ailments:


  • Herpes is a virus that develops at the moment of weakening of the human immune system
  • Esophageal candidiasis is an infection that provokes inflammation and pain in the esophagus. In the risk zone are people who have undergone chemotherapy, people with diabetes and patients with weakened immunity

The common causes of esophagitis include gastroesophageal reflux, which leads to incomplete closure of the cardiac part of the stomach. The consequence of this process is the throwing of the gastric contents back into the esophagus, which adversely affects the mucosa. This process occurs with frequent use of alcoholic beverages, smoking, pregnancy, obesity and diaphragmatic hernia.

Also, doctors identify the following predisposing factors:


  1. chemical poisoning. As a result of such poisoning, a chemical burn of the mucosa forms, which leads to the appearance of scars on the walls of the stomach;
  2. ingress of foreign bodies into the esophagus. Such foreign bodies can pierce the walls of the esophagus, which leads to purulent esophagitis;
  3. eating hot food
  4. fatty, spicy and fried foods

Classification

Classify acute esophagitis and chronic inflammation of the esophagus, each of which has its own signs.

Acute esophagitis is characterized by the following factors:


  • superficial lesion (in which there are no erosions and ulcers)
  • damage to the entire thickness of the mucosa (with this lesion ulcers are formed)
  • severe damage to submucosal layers (often accompanied by bleeding).

Chronic esophagitis has four stages of development:


  1. organ hyperemia without erosion
  2. small erosion of the body cover;
  3. increase in erosion of the cover
  4. covering with mucous ulcers

The nature of the inflammatory process is different:


  • catarrhal (when there is hyperemia and mucus edema)
  • erosive (occurs with chemical and thermal burns, and also due to an infectious disease)
  • edematous
  • hemorrhagic (the process by which hemorrhages occur in the esophagus wall)
  • pseudomembranous
  • necrotic (due to severe infectious disease)
  • exfoliative;
  • phlegmonous (appears due to damage to the walls of the esophagus by foreign bodies).

Symptoms

Symptoms of inflammation of the esophagus depends on the form of the disease. Thus, in the initial stages, the disease can occur without any particular visible clinical symptoms. The only manifestation may be the thermal sensitivity of the esophagus.

With the further development of esophagitis, the following signs appear:


  1. heartburn;
  2. acute and severe chest pain
  3. increased salivation;
  4. breathing disorder (manifested by dry cough)
  5. Swallowing disorder due to severe pain
  6. burping, which has a sour or bitter bite
  7. bloody vomiting.

Chronic esophagitis is characterized by mildly expressed symptoms. Often the disease occurs with minor pain in the chest and the area of ​​the xiphoid process.

Esophagitis in pregnancy appears due to a violation of the motor function of the esophagus, often manifested by heartburn.




Diagnostics

For the diagnosis of esophagitis, you need to contact the gastroenterologist. In acute form this disease is easy to identify, because this form of the disease usually has a pronounced clinical symptomatology. Usually, the doctor prescribes an endoscopic examination that can show changes in the mucosa. Esophagomanometry is used to detect violations of the motor function of the esophagus. To identify ulcers, an X-ray of the esophagus is usually performed.

Such diagnostic procedures are also carried out:


  • Upper endoscopy. During the procedure, the endoscope is inserted into the esophagus and stomach;
  • Radiography of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The procedure allows you to see how much the esophagus and the inflammatory process are damaged.

Treatment

How to treat esophagitis, knows the doctor-gastroenterologist. As a rule, the treatment of esophagitis is carried out in a complex way, with the obligatory observance of the diet. If the cause of the disease is a chemical burn, immediately wash the stomach. When infected, antibiotics are prescribed. Also, drugs that can block the production of acid are used.

In addition to drug treatment, they can prescribe such physiotherapy procedures:


  1. amplipulse therapy;
  2. Mud treatment;
  3. balneotherapy.

The diet implies exclusion from the ration the following:


  • alcoholic beverages;
  • Coffee;
  • hot, greasy and spicy food
  • Chocolate.

Instead, the dietary diet implies the consumption of the following foods:


  1. lean meat
  2. Wheat bread
  3. Unhealthy buns and biscuits
  4. eggs
  5. cottage cheese and sour cream
  6. Pasta
  7. porridge cooked on milk (oat, buckwheat and rice)

Some fruits and vegetables are allowed to eat:


  • carrots, potatoes, beets
  • bananas, strawberries, grapes.

It is not forbidden to drink broths from wheat bran and weak tea with milk.

There are also various folk remedies for the treatment of esophagitis. With this disease, such treatment can be effective.

A common remedy for the treatment of esophagitis is potato juice. It well helps to fight heartburn. This drink should be consumed once a day. However, this can only be done by the prescribing physician.

It will also be useful to use mint and chamomile tea. Inflammatory processes will help to fight the infusion of dill.

In the acute period of the disease it is forbidden to use:


  1. Mint
  2. rowan;
  3. dandelion
  4. leaves of plantain.

Folk remedies should be used only as an adjunct to basic therapy.

Possible complications

The degree of complications depends on the nature of the disease. After a chemical burn or esophagitis with a complicated form, such complications can arise:


  • appearance of scars on the esophagus
  • perforated ulcer with bleeding
  • Peptic ulcer
  • aspiration pneumonia, as a consequence of chemical burn;
  • purulent mediastinitis (often a consequence of burns and foreign bodies)

Prevention

In order to prevent inflammation of the esophagus, you should adhere to proper nutrition, refrain from drinking alcohol, avoid eating hot food. And also any inflammatory and infectious disease should be treated in a timely manner.

Forecast

With timely effective treatment, complete recovery is possible.




In some cases, the occurrence of chronic inflammation of the esophagus, which is controlled by drugs and diets.