False groats: symptoms and treatment
False croup is a pathology of an infectious-allergic nature that causes the development of laryngeal edema followed by its stenosis. The narrowing of the lumen of the airways, including the larynx, leads to insufficient air intake into the lungs and poses a threat to the life of the patient, therefore assistance in this condition should be provided immediately — in a matter of minutes after the attack.
Such a pathological condition as a false cereal is a consequence of other respiratory-viral defeats of the respiratory system. Mostly young children (younger than preschool age) are ill, which is connected with the anatomical features of the structure of their larynx and trachea. And boys are several times more likely to be affected than girls.
Adult people can face such a pathology in only one case — if the edema and stenosis of the larynx has a pronounced allergic nature. That is, when a person is allergic to any stimuli, it can appear in him in the form of a narrowing of the airway and choking gap.
In general, in medical practice there are two such concepts as true and false cereals. The true develops against the background of the diphtheria lesion of the larynx and passes with the formation of films and plaque. It is this that the true stenosis differs from the false one — in case of a false one, only hyperemia and swelling of the soft tissues causing the compression of the respiratory tube are observed.
Often, a false cereal develops against a background of another disease and as the cause of its occurrence is infection:
- influenza virus
- Mycoplasmas and chlamydia
- parainfluenza virus
In some cases, the cause of the development of a child’s pathological condition is the ingestion of herpes infection or chicken pox and measles virus into the body.
Bacterial infections of the respiratory tract can also lead to laryngeal edema and the development of stenosis. In particular, a false cereal may appear when exposed:
- Streptococcus and staphylococcus;
- Enterococcus and Escherichia coli;
- Hemophilus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
At the same time, not every child who has viruses or bacterial agents in his body becomes ill with this pathology. The reasons are that they have no predisposing factors, such as:
- susceptibility to allergic reactions
- frequent respiratory infections
- the period after vaccination;
- birth injuries;
It is necessary to understand and with that question, why exactly small children face such phenomenon, as false groats. The reason is that their trachea and larynx are still too soft, and therefore surrounding edematous tissues can easily squeeze them, blocking the flow of air. In addition, children are not yet sufficiently developed nervous system, so the neuro-humoral regulation is still imperfect, which is characterized by increased excitability of the larynx muscles.
Note that more often a false cereal in children develops during the off-season, when immunity decreases and the probability of infection with a bacterial or viral infection increases. It should be remembered that a false cereal is a very difficult condition, therefore, such a child should be helped immediately, with the appearance of the first symptoms. Otherwise, a small patient may develop respiratory failure and coma, with all the ensuing consequences and a threat to life.
False croup manifests itself in several stages and usually its symptoms appear at night. Stage one is characterized by a child’s anxiety, the appearance of a rough «barking» cough, shortness of breath and rapid breathing. In this condition, it is possible to help the baby and prevent the progression of pathology, however, an ambulance is still desirable, since one can never foresee how the baby’s organism responds to medical measures.
The second stage is characterized by the appearance of noisy breathing, the increase of dyspnea and participation in the process of inspiration and expiration of additional respiratory muscles. The child becomes pale during the progression of the attack, becomes covered with a cold sweat, he develops signs of anxiety. Lips and zone around the mouth become cyanotic, which is the main symptom for parents, saying that their child lacks oxygen.
If during this period do not provide emergency care for the child, more serious symptoms occur, such as:
- Anxiety and fear that turn into apathy and retardation
- the appearance of signs of respiratory failure and tissue hypoxia
- appearance of the hoarseness of the voice
- severe shortness of breath;
- Noisy breathing with a gradual cessation of cough (due to stenosis of the larynx lumen)
- development of cyanosis of the skin and mucous membranes
- a sudden drop in pressure;
The last, terminal stage is characterized by such symptoms as coma, development of convulsive syndrome, slowing of blood circulation and cardiac arrest.
Emergency Care and Treatment
As can be seen from the above, a false cereal is a very dangerous condition that causes the death of a child in a matter of minutes. Therefore, at the appearance of the first signs, parents should take care to slow down the severity of symptoms before the arrival of emergency doctors.
This can be done by inhaling the baby’s respiratory tract with saline or giving him the opportunity to breathe over the hot bath. In addition, it is necessary to take off his clothes, restraining his breathing, and open all the windows to the dwelling to provide access to fresh air. This is the first aid, but before the ambulance arrives, a number of other activities should be carried out. In particular, it is advisable to often give a child a drink of liquid, to give him to use any antihistamine medication available in the home medicine chest, which will slow the appearance of edema.
Treatment of false croup is carried out in a hospital under the supervision of a doctor. Small patients are prescribed inhalation with naphthyzine, saline and other anti-edema drugs. Also, they are required to show hormone injections, which can stop the edema and reverse it.
It is necessary to take care of the treatment of concomitant pathology, which caused stenosis of the larynx. To this end, use either antiviral or antibacterial drugs (depending on the pathogen).
In order to calm a child who experiences severe stress in breathing disorders, the reception of sedatives is indicated. In severe cases, the child undergoes intubation of the trachea or tracheostomy with the installation of a respiratory tube, which is removed after the antidiarrheal therapy works, and the airways are again passable.
Although timely treatment of the prognosis of this pathology is favorable, parents should remember that a false croup is prone to relapse. Therefore, in the home medicine chest should always be a means of providing first aid in this situation.