Female contraception methods
Birth control is a critical aspect in any sexual relations. It is especially important for a woman as it helps to avoid unwanted pregnancy. Another function of contraception is protection against sexually transmitted infections, though not all the methods provide such protection.
There are a lot of contraceptions for women today and the choice is strictly individual as contraceptives are not universal.
Biologic female contraceptives
- Lactation amenorrhea. A feeding woman within several months after delivery (up to 6 months) can not get pregnant. The disadvantage of this female contraception is that such safe period after childbirth is different in every woman and we can not say for sure when this period ends.
- Hormone level test. It is not very convenient but much more accurate. A woman measures sex hormones concentration in the morning urine.
- Calendar method. This contraception method is only for women with ideal menstrual cycle which is very rare today. There are fertile and infertile days. However even the slightest change in the menstruation leads to the calendar change.
- Temperature method. A woman should measure her basal temperature which is 0.5 degrees higher than the norm during fertile days.
- Cervical method. This female contraception method is based on the amount of vaginal discharge. When a woman notices vaginal discharge, these days are considered to be favorable for getting pregnant.
What is good about biological (or natural) female contraception methods – they do not have any influence on the health and body. At the same time, they are the most unreliable.
Barrier female contraceptives
- Female condoms. These are special tubes which ate inserted into the vagina preventing direct contact of the genitals in sex. The advantage of this female contraception method is that it also protects against sexually transmitted infections. It is one of the most effective protections.
- Diaphragms and caps. They are used together with the chemical contraception (spermicides). They are made with flexible materials but still may cause discomfort during sex. They are inserted into the vagina to prevent ejaculate reach the uterine. They provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases but not significant. Diaphragms may cause cervical inflammation. These contraception methods do not suit women after a childbirth as a new size will be required.
Barrier contraceptives are ones of the most effective and they protect against sexually transmitted diseases. However, they are not suitable for women with allergic reactions to synthetic materials.
Chemical female contraceptives
- Topical female contraceptives. Different creams, suppositories or vaginal tampons are used. They effectively protect from different infections and prevent the sperm from entering the uterine. The disadvantage is that the vaginal microflora is disturbed. This is a good method for those who has irregular sex life.
- Hormonal methods. They can be both oral and injective. They act to prevent the ovulation. Injective hormonal contraceptives are indicated for women over 40 and are nor recommended for younger women. The tablets are effective but may have a negative impact on a woman’s health, so they are chosen individually and only after a consultation with a doctor. The tablets are administered every day, if a woman missed one tablet, the entire protection will stop to be effective.
- Mechanical advanced hormonal female contraceptives. There are two types of such contraceptives: vaginal ring and plaster. A woman does not feel a ring in her vagina and it is inserted for 21 days. The plaster is effective for one week but it is not used during the menstruations. The plaster is contraindicated to smoking women.
- Emergency one-time female contraceptives. Such tablets are indicated within 3 days after unsafe sex. The faster a woman used the tablets, the lower the risk to get pregnant.
Chemical contraceptives are effective but they have a negative impact on a female body, distorting the flora, causing hormonal imbalance and different disorders in the reproductive system. Their administration should be agreed with a gynecologist.
Advanced contraceptive methods for women – intrauterine device
The intrauterine device is inserted only by a doctor after examination of a woman and provided she has not contraindications. The device works for 5 years and then it should be replaced. Untimely replacement leads to dangerous complications.
These types of female contraceptives can be hormonal or non-hormonal. First-type devices do not allow the egg to be attached to the uterine wall. Non-hormonal devices destroy the egg. Owing to this mechanism of action, there is a great risk of ectopic pregnancy. They do not provide protection against sexually transmitted infections.
Unlike all the mentioned contraception methods, this method gives 100% efficiency. However, it has more disadvantages than benefits. Sterilization as a method of contraception is good for women over 45 years old when there is no practical sense in fertility.
This female contraception method implies surgical tubal ligation. It does not influence the function of genital organs and glands but prevents pregnancy.
This is a reversible process but not guaranteed and it increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy.
Possible surgical interference:
It is not recommended to use these advanced methods of female contraception as they pose a great risk of infertility. Interference is possible with written consent of a woman if she already has children.