Fetoplacental insufficiency: symptoms and treatment

Fetoplacental insufficiency (FPN) is a series of pathological changes that arise as a result of certain etiological factors and can lead to termination of pregnancy. In addition, such processes can lead to the fact that the child is born with pathology.


The etiological picture of this pathological process has been fairly well studied. Clinicians note that the development of fetoplacental insufficiency can lead to virtually any violation of the health of a pregnant woman. Most often, the development of FPI is facilitated by such etiological factors:

  • Neuroendocrine diseases (diabetes mellitus, hormonal disorders, thyroid problems)
  • infectious and chronic ailments
  • pathology of internal organs
  • complications of the current pregnancy;
  • a pregnant pregnancy;
  • uterine pathologies (tumors, scars, complications after surgery)
  • various anomalies in fetal development
  • Anemia
  • mismatch of the Rh factor of the mother and fetus
  • Improper fetal location.

In addition, the development of fetoplacental insufficiency is greatly facilitated by repeated abortions.

The development of such ailment can contribute to the already transferred diseases of the future parent. Most often, these are ailments associated with the kidneys and the cardiovascular system.


According to the official medical classification, these forms of the disease development are distinguished:

  1. acute;
  2. Chronic;
  3. compensated
  4. Subcompensated;
  5. Critical.

The acute stage is characterized by partial dying of the placenta, which entails a significant threat of miscarriage.

The chronic stage is characterized by an almost complete absence of symptoms at the initial stage. This, in turn, often leads to a delay in the development of the fetus. If you find this pathological disorder at a chronic stage of development, you can avoid significant complications and save the fetus.

The compensated stage does not have any serious pathological changes when the fetus is born. If you follow all the doctor’s recommendations accurately, you can endure and give birth to a healthy baby.

At a subcompensated stage, the risk of miscarriage increases significantly. With this form of pathology development, the adaptive resources of the mother’s body are not able to fully support the life of the fetus, which explains the growing threat of miscarriage.

With a decompensated stage of development of pathology, it is practically impossible to bear fruit, since the protective-compensating resources of the organism are simply exhausted.

The critical stage of the development of fetoplacental insufficiency almost always ends with fetal death.

Also FPN are distinguished by the degree of development:

  • first degree — a violation of blood flow
  • the second degree — a violation of hemodynamics in the utero-placental area
  • Third degree — there is a high risk of fetal death.

If you see a doctor at the first manifestations of the clinical picture, stabilize the situation and save the fruit is possible.

General Symptoms

Fetoplacental insufficiency in pregnancy is dangerous because at the initial stage and during the transition to chronic, practically does not give any symptoms. To detect the development of pathology is possible only when passing a routine examination.

As the pathological process develops, the pregnant woman may be troubled by the following symptoms:

  1. lower abdominal pain
  2. Lower extremity edema
  3. colic in internal organs
  4. Uterine stress;
  5. secretions from the genitals.

If you have such symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor. The slightest delay can lead to loss of the fetus.


First of all, a specialized medical specialist conducts a personal examination and finds out an anamnesis. The history of the disease and the course of pregnancy are necessarily taken into account.

Additional diagnostics are also carried out using instrumental and laboratory methods:

  • general and biochemical blood test
  • a general urine test
  • hormonal blood test
  • Ultrasound of the abdominal and fetal organs
  • cardiotocography
  • Doppler.

When performing ultrasound diagnosis, the physician draws, first of all, attention to such parameters of the biophysical profile:

  1. frequency of fetal breathing movements per minute;
  2. the respiratory activity of the fetus, which is calculated on the basis of the indicators per minute;
  3. fetal muscular activity
  4. amniotic fluid volume
  5. cardiac fetal activity.

It should be noted that for an accurate diagnosis and the appointment of a correct treatment, the diagnostic method alone is not enough. To identify the cause of the development of the disease and its severity, several methods should be used.


The effectiveness of treatment depends largely on the cause of the development of fetoplacental insufficiency. In some cases, the artificial termination of pregnancy, to maintain the health and reproductive function of the mother herself.

The main treatment is not only to stabilize the position of the pregnant and fetus, but also to stop the pathological process. With any form of FPN treatment is carried out only permanently, under the strict supervision of a doctor.

The selection of drugs, the scheme of their administration and dosage is appointed strictly in the individual order. When selecting medicinal therapy, the following factors are taken into account:

  • localization of hemodynamic disturbances
  • gestational age
  • general health of the pregnant woman
  • the degree of development of pathology.

In order to stabilize the patient’s position, the doctor can prescribe such medications as part of the treatment:

  1. quarantil;
  2. Trental
  3. hofitol;
  4. Actovegin.

It should be noted that treatment with medicines can give an additional serious complication to the health of the baby and mom. Therefore, along with the drug treatment is vitamin therapy. Also, be sure to eat properly and keep bed rest.

As a rule, the treatment program lasts from 2 to 8 weeks. If drug therapy does not give the proper result and the gestational age allows, a cesarean section is performed.

The sooner the treatment is started, the more likely it is that it will yield positive results. Therefore, at the first signs, you should seek medical help. Use of folk remedies or questionable drugs in this case is unacceptable.


Preventing pathology is much easier than starting its treatment later. To be engaged in the prevention of fetoplacental insufficiency should already be at the stage of pregnancy planning. It should be understood that the prevention of pathologies in pregnancy concerns not only the future mother, but also the pope.

Preventive measures include the following recommendations:

  • proper nutrition, observance of the daily routine
  • general improvement of the organism of future parents
  • discarding bad habits, if any;
  • complete and timely treatment until the end of all diseases
  • Regular examination by specialized medical specialists.

Be sure to call the ambulance at the first signs of the above described clinical picture.