Fissure caries: symptoms and treatment
Fissure caries is an ailment that affects the anatomical cavities located on the chewing surface of the tooth. They are also called fissures. The most common people with this ailment are those who have these grooves so deep that a thorough brushing of teeth does not help to completely remove the plaque from them.
In medicine, fissures are divided into «open» and «closed». Open — these are the formations located on the surface of the teeth, the bottom of which can be well considered. Closed fissures are bottle-shaped. On top of the visual inspection, you can see only a narrow groove. But in the depths of such a fissure expands, and forms a rather deep cavity.
Fissure caries is formed for the same reasons as other types of caries. At the basis of the development of the pathological process is the demineralization of the hard tissues of the tooth. The main reason for this is the vital activity of microorganisms, which are constantly inhabiting the oral cavity. Due to inadequate hygiene, the mouth remains pieces of food, in which microorganisms begin to multiply actively. In the process of their development, they secrete acids, destructively acting on the structure of the teeth.
The main factors that lead to the progression of fissure caries:
- inferior hygiene. It is important to be able to properly brush your teeth to remove all the scurf and food left from the oral cavity. After all, even micro-pieces can become a «platform» for the life of organisms. In the case of fissure caries it is worth noting that sometimes anatomical depressions on the tooth can be so deep that at home, with the help of only one brush, there is no way to fully clean them. In such a case it is necessary to apply to the dentist once a half a year for professional hygiene of the oral cavity
- changing the composition of saliva. Due to some chronic ailments, the chemical composition of the saliva may vary slightly. This also has a negative effect on the general condition of the teeth;
- malnutrition. Also an important factor. Microorganisms are very «fond of» carbohydrates. And the more they get them, the faster they will multiply and secrete acids that destroy enamel;
- genetic predisposition to the development of carious processes.
The development of fissure caries can not always be seen at the first stage (white spot stages). Usually it is found when the anatomical cavities on the surface of the teeth are painted brown or black. This already indicates that caries has affected deeper structures of the enamel. If you do not start treatment at this stage, then the carious process will spread to the deep layers of the tooth (dentin). Then the patient begins to show the first symptoms of the pathology: pain when chewing food, as well as when exposed to the affected tooth of various irritants — cold, hot, sweet or sour. But it is worth noting that the pain does not appear in all people. It all depends on the individual characteristics of the body.
Diagnosis of fissure caries includes the following measures:
- visual inspection. It makes it possible to identify caries in open fissures. For this, a dental probe is used, which can «get stuck» in the affected cavities. But the closed fissure state can not be evaluated in this way, therefore, doctors resort to additional diagnostic methods;
- X-ray of teeth. This method is widely used for the diagnosis of dental diseases. X-ray provides an opportunity to detect the presence of carious cavities in the teeth, even in the absence of clinical manifestations. Using this method, you can determine the presence of caries in closed fissures. Panoramic snapshot gives an opportunity to assess the condition of all teeth at the top and bottom jaws at once, and the sighting image shows the state of one tooth
- laser fluorescence. This is the most effective technique. It makes it possible to identify the localization of fissure caries, its depth and the boundaries of the lesion.
Treatment of fissure caries is carried out using two modern techniques:
- making tabs
- Sealing of the formed cavity with the help of composite filling materials
Carious cavity filling
This method is used most often, since it is simple, efficient and time-consuming. The whole procedure consists of several stages. First, anesthesia is performed. Adults, as a rule, do either infiltration or conductive anesthesia. If the caries treatment is carried out by the child, and he is very restless, crying and afraid, then the doctor may resort to sedation (general anesthesia). Next, a complete removal of tissues affected by the carious process (using a drill). The cavity is treated with antiseptic solutions and an adhesive is introduced into it. After that, it is sealed with a seal. This technique makes it possible to completely restore the aesthetics and functionality of the tooth.
A tab is a microprosthesis of a part of a tooth that is made in a dental laboratory. Many dentists prefer this particular method of recovery, as it is more reliable and durable. To make a tab, you must first completely remove all the carious tissues and remove from the teeth an impression, which then will produce a plaster model of the tooth. It is on it that the technician will form a tab that completely corresponds to the lost part of the tooth. Fix it in the cavity of the tooth with the help of strong cement.
To prevent the development of fissure caries, it is recommended to apply such simple measures in practice:
- Carefully conduct oral hygiene
- normalize your diet — include more foods containing vitamins and minerals
- To strengthen the enamel, you should take the medication (on the recommendation of the doctor) that contain calcium, fluoride and other elements
- in childhood recommended to seal the deep fissures with a sealant to avoid the development of fissure caries in the future.