Fluorosis: symptoms and treatment


Fluorosis is a pathological condition in which the structural integrity of the enamel is disturbed. In most cases, the ailment is diagnosed in children. The main reason for the development of such a disorder is that a large amount of fluoride gets into the body for a long time. Depending on what was the etiological factor of the disease, its type will differ.

It is difficult to ignore the symptomatology of an ailment, as it is expressed in the appearance on the teeth of spots and bands of a yellowish hue, the erasure of the enamel, the formation of erosions and chips.

Diagnosis of pathology does not cause difficulties and is limited only to the examination of the dentist. Elimination of the disease is based on dental procedures.

In the international classification of diseases of ICD-10, this dental problem has a code — K03.

Etiology

The fundamental factor in the formation of the disease is excess fluoride in the human body. Its high content in the human body can be due to several reasons:


  • Drinking drinking water enriched with fluoride
  • Specific working conditions, in which the excess number of compounds of such an element is in the air

It follows that the fluorosis of teeth in children and adults can develop in a limited area or in the conditions of a single enterprise. However, not all children living in the same territory can develop a similar pathology. She is most susceptible to an organism with weakened immunity

The negative effect of fluoride on the teeth is explained by the fact that such a substance is actively sorbed by the body. The presence of such an element in food or in toothpaste will not harm the teeth.

The main risk group is children from five to fifteen years old. This age category is explained by the peculiarities of the structure of young teeth, the enamel of which has not yet grown strong enough. In such cases, talk about the fluorosis of baby teeth, which often goes on independently when the teenager all teeth are replaced by indigenous teeth. Nevertheless, the symptoms of an illness can be present during the eruption of permanent teeth.

The norm of fluoride is one mg per liter of fluid. It is noteworthy that a lack of such a substance can also lead to problems with teeth — caries.

Classification

Modern dentists identify such forms of fluorosis:


  1. dashed
  2. spotted
  3. erosive
  4. destructive;
  5. Melose-mottled

Each of these types of disease is distinguished by its clinical picture.

For reasons of the formation of such a disorder, it is divided into:


  • Endemic dental fluorosis is the most common form of a disease that is diagnosed among people living in regions where the fluoride content in the water is higher than one and a half milligrams per liter
  • professional fluorosis — is noted in workers who are constantly in contact with this substance. In addition to disrupting the integrity of the tooth enamel, it leads to the defeat of the bones of the skeleton, against which there is a significant decrease in the motor functions of the joints.

In addition, the following varieties of this disease are widespread:


  1. neighborly fluorosis — is formed in those individuals who live for a long time near industrial enterprises that use a similar element
  2. iatrogenous fluorosis — occurs in cases of irrational use of toothpastes enriched with such a component

In addition, the disease has several degrees of severity:


  • light — is expressed in the fact that the color of the enamel remains practically unchanged
  • moderate — the prevalence of pathology does not exceed 25% of the total tooth area
  • medium-heavy — spots and strips cover 50% of the tooth
  • severe — there is a significant deformation of the tooth, the enamel is erased and cleaves. The pathological process can extend to the skeletal bone tissue.

Symptoms

Since there is a fairly large number of different forms of the disease, each of them has its own characteristic clinical features.

Thus, the dashed form of an ailment is expressed in:


  1. forming blanks or stripes of whitish character on the cutters. This means that they are not visible to the unaided eye, but in some cases may be mild. The dentist detects them by drying the surface of the affected tooth;
  2. merging strips into large spots.

Spotted form of the disease has the following symptoms:


  • formation of pronounced multiple whitish spots on the tooth surface
  • merging small spots into one large
  • the shiny and smooth surface of a similar growth
  • blurred outlines that smoothly transform into healthy tooth enamel

Melotic-mottled form of fluorosis differs:


  1. matte shade of the enamel
  2. brightly manifesting pigment spots or spotted foci;
  3. occurrence of sites of destruction, which are inclusions not more than 0.2 millimeters in depth and up to 1.5 millimeters in diameter;
  4. rapid destruction of the enamel
  5. the visibility of dentin

The erosive form of fluorosis has such signs:


  • the appearance of deep erosions on the teeth
  • complete absence of enamel in the affected areas

The destructive form of fluorosis is characterized by the presence of:






  1. erosive lesions and erasing not only enamel, but also other layers of the tooth
  2. the shape of the crown, which occurs against the background of brittleness and breaking of teeth

The two main varieties of the disease can be distinguished by the following factors:


  • the professional type does not in all cases lead to stains or erosions on the teeth
  • The fluorosis that has arisen because of specific working conditions is always supplemented with a pain syndrome in the bones and a significant decrease in the activity of the joints
  • When the disease is neglected, vegetative pathology and impaired liver function are observed. In some cases, malignant bone formation may be formed, which is called osteosarcoma.

This symptomatology is typical for both adults and children. However, it must be taken into account that in children any disease develops more rapidly and is more severe.

Diagnostics

The dentist can diagnose on the basis of what symptoms prevail in the clinical picture. The basis of diagnosis is the examination of the oral cavity with the help of dental instruments.

Among the laboratory examinations, it is necessary to distinguish only the study of the water that the patient takes inside. This is done to determine the concentration of fluorine in it.

Treatment

Depending on the variety of fluorosis, the doctor will tell you how to treat it.

First of all, absolutely all patients are recommended to drink only filtered water. In addition, it is necessary to abandon toothpaste and other substances designed to perform hygienic procedures in the oral cavity, which contain even a minimal amount of fluoride.

Removal of the destroyed portion of the tooth and its subsequent sealing is not appropriate for fluorosis in children or adults. This is due to the fact that often such actions lead to the fact that the filling falls out, and the tooth is subjected to further destruction.

As a drug treatment for ailments, drugs enriched with substances such as calcium and phosphorus are used.

With a light current shown:


  1. Teeth whitening
  2. Remineralization of the affected teeth. This procedure is that electrophoresis, phonophoresis or by applying to the teeth a compound of phosphorus and calcium is applied. To obtain a positive effect of such therapy, at least ten procedures are required, and the full course includes about twenty procedures.

After such treatment is shown the use of a special remineralizing toothpaste, which can be used at home — for this, therapeutic caps are used. Contraindications to the performance of such therapy are:


  • the period of bearing the child
  • Breastfeeding the baby;
  • individual drug intolerance
  • severe periodontal disease
  • multiple caries.

Whitening of the tooth does not make sense with such forms of fluorosis:


  1. petiolate-mottled
  2. erosive
  3. Destructive.

In such situations, you can get rid of the problem only by restoring your teeth with veneers or lumineers.

With the disease progressing, dental treatment can be carried out only by installing a crown made of dental ceramics or cermets.

Good results can be achieved with the help of folk medicine, which must be used only as part of a comprehensive treatment. The most effective herbal and natural remedies are:


  • strawberry or strawberry juice
  • essential lemon oil
  • eggplant powder
  • wood ash
  • white clay;
  • sea salt;
  • Camomile and Calendula
  • Field horsetail and mint
  • root of oak or aura
  • Yarrow and hops
  • leaves of currant or nettle;
  • tansy and wormwood

Prevention

To prevent the development of such a disease it is necessary: ​​


  1. drink only purified water
  2. periodically, and not regularly use toothpaste, which includes fluoride;
  3. enrich the diet with calcium;
  4. adhere to all safety rules with professional contact with fluoride
  5. visit the dentist once every three months.

Such prevention of fluorosis is shown to both adults and children.

The prognosis of ailment is often favorable, but subject to all preventive recommendations and with the timely application of qualified help.