Focal atrophic gastritis: symptoms and treatment

Focal atrophic gastritis — one of the most dangerous forms of the pathological process in the stomach, at which inflammatory processes occur in the mucosa and pancreatic. During the disease, the normal functioning of cells responsible for the production of gastric juice is reduced, resulting in the death of glands producing enzymes and hydrochloric acid. This disease can spread as part of the body, and the entire stomach. Ophthalmic gastritis is typical to affect one or more areas of the mucous membrane of the organ. Also, this disease can be the cause of premalignant conditions of the stomach.



Etiology

The etiology of this disease is well understood. Clinicians identify the most likely predisposing factors:


  • Unregulated meals
  • excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages
  • smoking;
  • nervous and mental stress
  • disorders of the endocrine system
  • hereditary factor.

It should be understood that no etiologic factor from the list is a 100% guarantee of the development of this disease.

In addition, often the cause of the pathological process is the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. Activation of this organism contributes to improper nutrition and decreased immunity.

Negative effects on the stomach also have a prolonged intake of drugs that contain sulfonamides, reserpine and potassium chloride.

Classification

According to the nature of the disease, there are two forms of focal atrophic gastritis:


  1. acute;
  2. chronic.

Acute gastritis is an acute form of the disease, which is typical to manifest itself within a few hours or days.

The chronic form of gastritis has less pronounced symptoms of the clinical picture than the acute one. However, it is characterized by a prolonged destructive effect — there is atrophy of cells and the gastric mucosa.

There is also a more dangerous type of atrophic gastritis — it is an atrophic antral gastritis. This type is characterized by the appearance of inflammation in the antrum of the stomach. Antral atrophic gastritis can occur asymptomatically and eventually develop into gastric cancer.

Symptoms

In most cases, at the initial stage of development, the focal type of gastritis is asymptomatic. In this period, most often, patients complain of gravity in the solar plexus after eating, even in small amounts, periodically. As the disease develops, the pathological process can manifest itself in the form of such symptoms:


  • painful sensations
  • nausea and vomiting
  • burping, having a rotten smell
  • diarrhea;
  • flatulence.

Common symptoms of this ailment are similar to those of other forms of inflammation of the gastric mucosa. Therefore, if there are such signs of a clinical picture, you should immediately seek medical help.

Diagnostics

Because this form of gastritis has symptoms similar to other gastrointestinal diseases, differential diagnosis is often required for accurate diagnosis.

In order to make a diagnosis you need to see a gastroenterologist. After a physical examination and anamnesis, the following diagnostic procedures are carried out:





  1. a general blood test;
  2. Urine analysis
  3. measuring the acidity of gastric juice (an important diagnostic feature).

As for instrumental diagnostics, this includes the following:


  • X-ray examination
  • endoscopic examination
  • Immunological study of blood composition
  • Fibrogastroduanoscopic examination

After the tests and examinations, the doctor will be able to make an accurate diagnosis and determine how to cure the disease properly and effectively. Self-comparison of symptoms and treatment should not be, as this can lead to serious complications.

Treatment

Treatment of focal atrophic gastritis is under the supervision of a doctor who prescribes courses of drugs and procedures that help the patient recover. As a rule, these are preparations of this spectrum of action:


  1. to stimulate the littering
  2. antibiotics
  3. analgesics (in case of acute illness)
  4. to improve gastric motility;
  5. directed to the regeneration of stomach cells
  6. to strengthen the immune system.

One of the most important stages of treating this gastrointestinal disease is proper nutrition. With focal atrophic gastritis, special diets are prescribed, thanks to which the work of the stomach is facilitated, the food is absorbed more quickly and the work of the digestive tract is gradually normalized. Food must be grinded, boiled or cooked.

It is strictly forbidden to accept:


  • fried
  • acute;
  • Bold
  • sour
  • too salty food

You should forget about products that contain artificial colors and taste enhancers.

In the period of remission of the disease, you can resort to treatment with folk remedies, before doing this, without consulting a doctor.

Potato and white cabbage juice are effective enough, they must be freshly prepared and taken only on an empty stomach.

Chamomile broth, cooked with linden, mint or fennel, promotes healing of the gastric mucosa. However, the use of any remedy from traditional medicine requires prior consultation with a doctor.

Possible complications

If treatment is not started in a timely manner or diagnosed in a neglected stage, the likelihood of developing such complications is high:


  1. stomach ulcers
  2. development of precancerous condition;
  3. gastric adenocarcinoma.

But with timely treatment and early detection of the disease, you can avoid such complications.

Prevention

If you follow the elementary rules of prevention, then you can, if not completely eliminate, then significantly reduce the risk of developing such a disease. The main preventive measures are as follows:


  • discarding bad habits
  • power and sleep mode
  • refusal of harmful and heavy food
  • the exclusion of nervous overstresses, frequent disturbances and experiences.

It is necessary to regularly undergo an endoscopy examination, which will help to detect the disease in time.

Forecast




In the absence of timely detection and treatment of the disease there are serious complications that can develop into cancer. Atrophic gastritis with a low acidity in 15% of cases ends with oncology.