Furuncle: symptoms and treatment

Furuncle is a purulent-inflammatory skin disease that affects the hair follicle and nearby tissues. It is characterized by an acute current. Pathological formation can form on any part of the human body. The cause of the furuncle is an increased activity of pathogenic microorganisms that penetrate deep layers of the epidermis through microtraumas, abrasions, cuts and the like. This disease has no restrictions on sex and age, but more often it is diagnosed in middle-aged people.



One furuncle usually appears on the surface of the skin, but formation of a large number of pathological elements is also possible. In this case, they already talk about the development of furunculosis. This pathology is dangerous, so the patient is recommended to immediately seek medical help for help. Self-disclosure of the boil is strictly forbidden, as pus from the formation can spread to surrounding tissues, lymphatic and blood vessels, which can lead to dangerous complications.

Etiology

On the human skin, there are normally several different strains of pathogenic microorganisms, including staphylococcus aureus. 90% of these microbes are harmless, 10% are pathogenic, but they can not cause furunculosis. The main cause of the occurrence is a violation of the normal ratio of strains of staphylococci.

Previously it was assumed that the main cause of the furuncle on the skin is a strong hypothermia of the body. But this is not so. The list of factors that can trigger the progression of pathology is wider, and includes:


  • increased sweating (a common cause of progression of pathology)
  • decreased body reactivity
  • physical or psychoemotional overexertion
  • Inadequate hygiene;
  • Previously infectious ailments
  • vitamin deficiency;
  • combing mosquito bites
  • insufficient handling of scratches, abrasions, bites and other skin injuries
  • the presence in the body of ailments with chronic course. These include anemia, diabetes and so on.

Stages

The process of formation and development of the abscess is usually 10 days. After this period, he completely heals. Clinicians distinguish three stages in the development of this pathological entity:


  1. infiltrative. An infiltrate appears on the surface of the epidermis, a pathological hyperemic area with a dense structure. With palpation, he is painful. At first its dimensions are insignificant, but gradually it increases and reaches a diameter of 3 cm. The skin covering located in the infiltration zone, swells and becomes painful. The patient may note that a feeling of tingling has appeared. It is worth noting and a characteristic feature of this stage of the pathological process — the infiltrate is almost always formed near the hair. This is due to the fact that staphylococci are more easily introduced into the hair follicle and begin to actively propagate within it and release toxins
  2. purulent-necrotic. It begins 3-4 days after the appearance on the skin of a pathological infiltrate. In the center of this pathological element, a rod is formed, which consists of affected tissues and pus. Its end can be seen if you carefully examine the boil — it rises above its surface in the form of a pustule of white or yellow. After a while, the thin layer of tissue that covered it bursts, and the purulent contents come out, after which the patient’s condition is stabilized. Edema and hyperemia passes, pain also passes;
  3. stage of healing. After the withdrawal of pus, the wound surface that remained after the boil begins to heal gradually. If the formation was small, then after it no changes on the skin may not remain. But if the abscess was large, then a scar will form after it.

Localization


  • Person;
  • Forearm
  • the back of the neck
  • Buttocks
  • hips.

Symptoms

Symptoms of the appearance of the furuncle largely depend on what part of the body it formed. On the face very often there are furuncles, since the skin in this place has an increased fat content, because in its thickness there is a mass of sebaceous glands. More often furuncles are localized above the upper lip, in the nose, in the region of the external auditory orifice.

Symptoms of the disease:


  1. the appearance of the abscess can be seen right away, since even its small size leads to a cosmetic defect;
  2. severe pain in the lesion;
  3. headache;
  4. pain in the area of ​​the location of the abscess may increase during movements of the muscular structures of the face, trunk, limbs;
  5. temperature increase.

The formation of furuncles in the axillary region is extremely rare. For this place more characteristic is hydradenitis — inflammation of the sweat glands. Symptoms of the abscess under the arm are the same as in other localizations. The only difference is that the pain sensations increase during the movement of the shoulder joints.

The formation of the abscess on the labia is accompanied by their swelling, redness and severe soreness. The location in this area gives the patient a lot of unpleasant sensations. Pain occurs even while walking.

Diagnostics

The doctor can diagnose already during the initial examination, since the appearance of the formation is quite specific. But in view of the fact that the formation of the abscess can provoke not only staphylococci, a bacteriological study is also appointed to clarify the pathogen. To do this, the purulent contents of the furuncle are taken for analysis.

Treatment

How to treat a boil can only be told by a qualified doctor after receiving the results of the analysis and ascertaining the degree of development of the pathological process. If the furuncle refers to uncomplicated forms, then in the case of surgical treatment do not resort — use the methods of conservative therapy.

Treatment of a furuncle in the infiltration stage:


  • To eliminate unpleasant symptoms, doctors allow wiping the site of localization of the infiltrate with alcohol or other antiseptic solutions;
  • applying dry heat to the infiltration
  • it is allowed to burn the boil with iodine
  • UHF therapy
  • laser therapy.

Treatment of boils at home can be done, but this is not recommended. It is better to immediately go to a qualified surgeon. Only he can assign the right treatment plan, which will help not only to eliminate the symptoms of pathology, but also the pathological formation itself without consequences.




Treatment in the stage of rod formation:


  1. A special bandage with crystals of salicylic acid is applied to the abscess. This active substance gradually corrodes the upper layer of the abscess and the pus and the necrotic tissues exude;
  2. The furuncle rod is removed by a special surgical thin clamp.




Dissection of the boil is performed only if it is complicated by the formation of an abscess. This formation is formed in the event that the purulent contents of the furuncle penetrates the subcutaneous fat. As a result, the symptoms of the ailment only increase. In this case, perform a surgical procedure. Treatment is shown under stationary conditions.