General hypoplasia of speech: symptoms and treatment
General hypoplasia of speech — is a whole complex of symptoms, in which there is a violation of all aspects and sides of the speech system, without any exception. This means that the disorders will be observed both with lexical, and with phonetic and grammatical aspects.
A similar pathology is polyethological, the formation of which is influenced by a large number of predisposing factors associated with intrauterine development of the fetus.
The symptomatology of the disease will differ depending on the degree of severity. In total, there are four levels of speech underdevelopment. In order to determine the severity of the disease, the patient must undergo a speech therapy examination.
Treatment is based on conservative techniques and involves the work of a speech therapist with the child and parents at home.
The international classification of diseases divides such a disorder into several ailments, why they have several meanings. OHP has a code for the ICD-10 — F80-F89.
The general underdevelopment of speech in pre-school children is a fairly common ailment that occurs in 40% of all members of this age category.
Several factors can lead to such a disorder:
- intrauterine fetal hypoxia, which leads to CNS damage
- conflict of Rh factor of mother and fetus blood
- fetal asphyxia at birth — this condition is characterized by a lack of oxygen and can lead to suffocation or imaginary death
- Getting a child injured directly during labor,
- Pregnancy’s addiction to bad habits
- unfavorable working or living conditions for female representatives in the period of gestation.
Such circumstances lead to the fact that the child still during fetal development there are violations on the part of the formation of organs and systems, in particular the central nervous system. Such processes can lead to the emergence of a wide range of functional pathologies, including disorders of speech activity.
In addition, this disorder can develop after the birth of the baby. To promote this can:
- Frequent acute diseases of various etiologies
- the presence of any chronic ailments;
- suffered craniocerebral trauma.
It is worth noting that OHP can occur with such ailments:
In addition, the formation of speech abilities is affected by insufficient attention or lack of emotional contact of the baby with the parents.
There are four degrees of speech underdevelopment:
- Level 1 OSR — characterized by a complete lack of coherent speech. In the medical field, this condition is called «no-speech children.» Kids communicate with simplified speech or babble, and actively gesture;
- Level 2 OSR — the initial development of a common speech is observed, but the stock of words remains poor, and the child allows a large number of errors during the pronunciation of words. In such cases, the maximum that a child can do is to say a simple sentence that will consist of no more than three words
- hypoplasia of speech level 3 — is different in that children can make sentences, but the semantic and sound load is not developed enough
- Level 4 is the easiest stage of the ailment. This is because the child talks quite well, speech is practically the same as the peers. Nevertheless, there are violations during pronunciation and construction of long phrases.
In addition, clinicians distinguish several groups of this disease:
- uncomplicated OHP — is diagnosed in patients with a small pathology of brain activity
- Complicated OHR — observed in the presence of any neurological or psychiatric disorder
- the general hypoplasia of speech and the delay of speech development — is diagnosed in children with pathologies of those parts of the brain that are responsible for speech.
The characteristics of children with general speech underdevelopment will differ depending on the severity of the disorder inherent in the patient.
However, despite this, these children begin to pronounce their first words relatively late — in three or four years. Speech in this case is almost incomprehensible to others and is incorrectly framed. This is the reason that the child begins to violate verbal activity, and sometimes can be observed:
- memory impairment
- Decreased mental performance
- Lack of interest in learning new;
- loss of attention.
In patients with the first level of OHP, the following manifestations are observed:
- instead of words there is babbling, which is supplemented by a large number of gestures and rich facial expressions
- communication is carried out by sentences consisting of one word, the meaning of which is rather difficult to understand;
- Limited stock of words
- a violation in the construction of words
- a disorder in the pronunciation of sounds
- the child can not distinguish between sounds.
Underdevelopment of speech of the 2nd degree is characterized by the following violations:
- the playback of phrases consisting of no more than three words is observed
- vocabulary is very poor compared to the number of words that the child’s peers use;
- Children are not able to understand the meaning of a large number of words
- Lack of understanding of the difference between numbers;
- irrational use of prepositions and cases;
- sounds are pronounced with multiple distortions;
- phonemic perception is not sufficiently formed
- the child’s unwillingness to sound analysis of the speech addressed to him
Parameters of the third-level OSR:
- the presence of a conscious phrasal speech, but it is based on simple sentences
- difficulty in constructing complex phrases;
- an increased supply of words used, compared to children with a second-degree OSR;
- making mistakes with prepositions and matching different parts of speech
- Minor deviations in pronunciation and phonemic perception.
Description of the clinical picture of general underdevelopment of speech at level 4:
- the presence of specific difficulties with soundproofing and repetition of words in which a large number of syllables
- the level of phonetic understanding is lowered
- making mistakes during word formation
- Wide vocabulary
- breakdown of logical presentation — minor details come to the fore.
The detection of this violation is carried out by contacting the speech therapist with the child.
The definition of pathology and its severity consists of:
- determining the possibilities of oral speech — to clarify the level of formation of different aspects of the language system. Such a diagnostic exercise begins with the study of coherent speech. The doctor evaluates the patient’s ability to compose a story according to a picture, retell the heard or read, and also to compose an independent small story. In addition, the level of grammar and vocabulary is taken into account;
- evaluating the sound aspect of speech — based on how the child pronounces these or other sounds, on the syllabic structure and the phonetic content of the words that the patient utters. Not without attention is the phonetic perception, as well as sound analysis.
In addition, diagnostic methods for evaluating auditory memory and other mental processes may be necessary.
During the diagnosis, not only does the degree of severity of the OHP become clear, then there is also a differentiation of such an ailment from the ZRD.
Since each degree of general underdevelopment of speech formation is divided into several stages, then, accordingly, the therapy will also differ.
Directions of correction of general underdevelopment of speech in preschool children:
- The 1st level ailment is the activation of independent speech and the development of the processes of understanding what is said to the child. In addition, attention is paid to thinking and memory. The training of such patients does not set a goal in achieving a normal phonetic formulation of speech, but the grammatical part is taken into account;
- Second-level OSR — works are carried out not only on the development of speech, but also on the understanding of what is spoken. Therapy is aimed at improving the sound quality, the formation of meaningful phrases and the clarification of grammatical and lexical subtleties
- Disease of 3rd degree — correction of conscious coherent speech, improvement of the sides connected with grammar and vocabulary, assimilation of pronunciation of sounds and phonetic understanding;
- Level 4 OGR — therapy is aimed at correcting the age-related speech for subsequent problem-free learning in general educational institutions.
Therapy of children with different degrees of severity of such a disorder is carried out under different conditions:
- Level 1 and 2 ONR in specially designated schools
- Level 3 OSR — in general education institutions with the condition of correctional education
- a poorly expressed general underdevelopment of speech — in general schools.
Ignoring the signs of such an ailment can lead to such consequences:
- total absence of speech
- the emotional closure of the child, who notes that he is different from his peers;
- further difficulties in training, work and other social spheres, which will be observed already in adults with untreated OHR
Prevention and Forecast
In order to avoid the development of such an ailment it is necessary:
- women during pregnancy should give up harmful habits and pay special attention to their health
- the parents of infants in time to treat infectious diseases;
- give as much time as possible to children, do not ignore them, and also develop and educate them.
Since the correctional work aimed at overcoming OHR takes quite a long time and is a time-consuming process, it is best if it is started as early as possible — when the child is three years old. Only in this case it is possible to achieve a favorable forecast.