Hearing Aid: Symptoms and Treatment
Hearing loss is a pathological condition characterized by a sharp or gradual decrease in hearing. The deterioration in the ability to perceive sounds can be both a short-term phenomenon and a consequence of serious diseases. Deafness can start to progress due to the use of some synthetic drugs, against the background of infectious diseases and so on.
Previously, this disease was a problem only for the elderly, but now it is significantly «younger», and it is diagnosed in people of different age groups, including the newborn.
The following reasons can cause the progression of hearing loss:
- A viral infection. Often, such infectious ailments lead to worsening of hearing: epidemic parotitis, measles, scarlet fever, ARVI, sore throat, etc.
- Chlamydia. These pathogenic microorganisms provoke the progression of hearing loss in newborns (if infection occurred during passage through the birth canal of a sick mother)
- Inflammatory ailments that affect ENT organs. This is the most common cause of hearing loss. Hearing loss can become a complication of otitis media of the middle ear, chronic otitis media of a purulent nature, etc.
- autoimmune diseases;
- hypertension and atherosclerosis. Often the cause of hearing loss is a violation of the supply of blood to the inner ear;
- poisoning of the body with heavy metals
- taking certain medications. These include antibiotics and ototoxic drugs. They should be taken only on the recommendation of the attending physician, because they have an unpleasant side effect — a decrease in hearing acuity;
- ear trauma
- Long exposure to noise. An increased noise load is a common cause of progression of hearing loss among residents of large cities. Also, the symptoms of an ailment can manifest with regular listening to loud music in clubs or through an audio player
- heredity. Genetic deafness is not a rare occurrence. It can be detected already in newborn children. The main reason for its development is the dominance of the gene that is responsible for the auditory function
- sulfur fuses
- tumor-like proliferation of osseous structures in the ear that partially or completely cover the ear canal.
Clinicians distinguish three types of hearing loss:
- conductive hearing loss. This variety is characterized by a violation of the sound waves to the inner ear. The main cause of progression of the disease is a previously transferred inflammatory or infectious disease of the ear (for example, otitis). Also, to provoke a conductive type of disease can be a traumatic injury to the tympanic membrane or the presence of a sulfur plug. To improve the hearing in this type of pathology, it is possible both by medicinal methods of treatment, and by surgical ones. It is possible to completely restore the auditory function;
- Sensoryural hearing loss (neurosensory). It progresses due to the destruction of hair cells in the cochlea, the main function of which is to perceive sounds. Most often the cause of the development of pathology are infectious and inflammatory ailments, as well as ear traumas of varying severity. In most clinical situations, hearing improvement is not possible;
- mixed. Combines sensorineural hearing loss and conductive
Separately, it is also worth highlighting a sudden deafness. The main cause of this condition is trauma to the hearing aid or head. Deafness can as suddenly arise, so suddenly and disappear (self-healing). But sometimes sudden deafness can become an irreversible process.
There are 4 degrees of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss:
- light. For a given degree of hearing loss, the difficulty in recognizing sounds with a loudness of 26 to 45 dB is characteristic. It should be noted that even mild manifestations of pathology in newborns and young children are dangerous, since they greatly influence the learning process of their conversational speech
- Medium. It is characterized by the inability to recognize sounds with a loudness of 46 to 65 dB
- Heavy. With this degree, we are already talking about the progression of deafness. It is difficult for a person to communicate with other people, since he can not hear sounds with a loudness of 66 to 85 dB;
- Deep. A person does not have a receptivity to sounds that exceed 85 dB in volume. At this stage of the progression of the disease, the treatment and use of various auxiliary devices does not have the desired effect. The only way to treat hearing loss is to install a cochlear implant.
Early symptoms of hypoacusia 1 degree:
- a person with difficulty recognizes the speech of the interlocutor;
- often re-requests and asks to repeat certain sentences;
- When you watch TV or listen to music, it increases the volume
- increases the volume of the voice during a conversation with another person
- feeling tired;
- Irritability increases because people constantly make attempts to hear sounds.
Since these symptoms can not be detected in children in the first years of life, there are some signs that indicate a decrease in hearing in a child:
- No response to loud sounds
- does not respond to pronouncing his name
- does not say any words by the year;
- does not turn to the source of certain sounds (a characteristic symptom).
With the progression of neurosensory hearing loss of the 2nd degree, all the symptoms mentioned above are amplified. A person begins to experience difficulties in communicating with other people, because he can not disassemble their speech and is constantly compelled to listen.
The treatment of hearing loss directly depends on the type of pathology that struck a person. Conductive type of ailment can be cured, especially if its progression was provoked by diseases or traumas of varying severity. To improve hearing, doctors first resort to conservative methods of treatment. A good effect is given by medications.
Surgical treatment is used in case of ineffectiveness of conservative methods. Doctors produce prosthetics of auditory ossicles, remove tumors that can cover the ear canal, etc. Thanks to this, it is possible to restore the auditory function.
The treatment of the hearing loss of the neurosensory type is more complicated, since the destruction of hair cells is an irreversible process. In the early stages of the disease, physicians resort to physiotherapy and drug therapy. This helps prevent further cell death. Heavy forms can not be cured. The only method that allows you to restore hearing — hearing.