Helicobacteriosis: symptoms and treatment
Helicobacteriosis is a disease caused by the Helicobacter pylori bacterium (received this name because it adapts to the pyloric flora of the stomach). The microorganism unlike other bacteria that die from gastric juice is not only not eliminated, but also causes various ailments of the stomach, duodenum and other digestive organs.
Getting into this environment Helicobacterium causes an inflammatory process in the mucous membrane, which is accompanied by a violation of its structure and the formation of small ulcers that can be treated without treatment to deeper tissues and diagnosed as a stomach ulcer and other digestive organs. Also, the pathogenic activity of the bacterium can contribute to the onset of cancer. In addition, Helicobacter pylori often becomes a causative agent of gastritis, because more than half of people with this disease have this bacterium, and practically all people with stomach ulcers.
Helicobacteriosis occurs quite often in adults, especially among the elderly population — in children and adolescents it is observed several times less often. Getting into the mucous membrane, the bacterium begins to release the products of its vital activity, which damage and disrupt the functioning of the food tract, and, in addition, leads to the appearance of unpleasant symptoms. Eliminate the bacterium, as well as prevent it from multiplying, perhaps with the help of antibiotics and other medications that regulate the acidity of the stomach.
The main reasons for the penetration of the microorganism into the human body are not fully understood, but there are several predisposing factors, among which:
- Kisses with an infected person. Moreover, the carrier of the bacterium itself may not be aware of its existence, since the disease can continue to be asymptomatic for decades, but in the infected person the first symptoms will appear in a few days;
- poor or improper handling of medical instruments, in particular an endoscope
- transmission by airborne droplets
- using personal hygiene items with a sick person
- drinking untreated water from the tap
- eating unwashed vegetables and fruits
- Non-compliance with personal hygiene rules. A large number of people forget to wash their hands after the street;
- mother-to-child transmission through saliva and general cutlery
- infection through contact with animals is extremely rare
- in children’s body can get through toys lying on the floor or pacifier, but will manifest itself after many years.
As the bacterium can be transmitted through dishes and bath accessories, it is considered to be a family illness, if one family member becomes infected, the infection symptoms will necessarily appear in one of the next of kin.
Depending on the intensity of manifestation of symptoms, Helicobacteriosis can exist in several forms:
- asymptomatic (latent, slow) — in most people this bacterium does not cause pain or discomfort, but it is only under the condition of strong immunity. A person can only notice abnormalities in the work of the digestive system, but write it off for other reasons. But provided that the microorganism lives in the human body for more than ten years, the ulcers formed by it can become transformed into malignant cancerous growths
- acute — accompanied by severe attacks of nausea followed by vomiting and pain in the abdomen;
- chronic — in which the acute form usually flows and is expressed in the form of gastritis. It is this type of disease that is observed in most people who are affected by Helicobacter pylori. Quite often the duodenum is exposed;
- ulcerative — development occurs when the deeper layers of the organ walls are affected. Often this happens under the influence of some factors — the abuse of nicotine and alcohol, as well as the prolonged impact of stressful situations.
For many people, the bacterium has been in the body for several years and does not manifest itself. But still helikobakterioz has its own specific symptoms, which will differ depending on the form of the disease. Thus, the signs of acute and chronic Helicobacteriosis will be:
- frequent vomiting;
- Acute pain in the lower abdomen. May appear both during meals and after;
- severe heartburn;
- feeling of unpleasant taste in the mouth
- stomach pain, of a recurrent nature
- Emission of gases
- bleeding from the gums.
In chronic form, but involving the duodenum, the symptoms resemble the manifestations of gastritis, to which are added:
- diarrhea followed by constipation
- loss of appetite
- a hunger that does not disappear after eating or, conversely, a strong oversaturation
- increased abdominal volume
- A repetitive eructation.
The following symptoms are typical for a ulcerative form:
- severe pain and heaviness in the abdomen, usually expressed after eating;
- Feeling of nausea and vomiting
But the presence of such symptoms does not always mean that a person has Helicobacteriosis, for full confirmation it is necessary to undergo diagnostics.
Diagnosis of Helicobacteriosis is rather difficult, since the disease does not have specific symptoms. The most reliable methods of examination are the following:
- examination of the patient and palpation of the abdomen. In addition, the patient must be informed of the time of first detection of symptoms or discomfort.
- fibrogastroscopy with a small sample of mucosal tissue
- endoscopic examination — in which an endoscope is inserted through the oral cavity, through which all the organs of the digestive tract, in particular the stomach and duodenum, can be examined in detail
- sampling saliva and blood, if bleeding from the gums, for subsequent laboratory tests
- blood tests to determine antibodies;
- analysis of stools in which, in the presence of this disorder, bacterial particles will be detected;
- a variety of specific bacteriological techniques for the detection of Helicobacter pylori.
In addition, the diagnosis is carried out not only during the diagnosis, but also after treatment. This is done in order to track the success of therapeutic measures. It is necessary to carry out the diagnosis one month after recovery.
Treatment of Helicobacteriosis is aimed at destroying the bacterium. Therapy is selected for each patient individually, taking into account the causes of the occurrence or the mode of transmission, the symptoms and the extent of the disease. In general, the treatment consists of the appointment of a combination of certain antibiotics, among them — amoxicillin, clarithromycin, rabeprazole, tetracycline, metronidazole. On average, treatment lasts two weeks and guarantees complete recovery without any consequences for the body or health. In chronic course, treatment is considered successful if it was possible to prevent the formation of oncology.
After the course of antibiotics, the patient must adhere to a diet in which it is necessary to exclude sharp and fatty foods, as well as the use of alcoholic beverages. In addition, there are several folk recipes that speed up recovery and consist of:
- infused with pear, apple and strawberry flowers, cranberry leaves
- decoction of St. John’s wort, marigold, centaury and yarrow
- tinctures from alcohol and propolis
Preventive measures against Helicobacteriosis include:
- use of personal hygiene products
- use of different dishes if the family has an infected person
- Wash fruit and vegetables before eating them. In addition, wash your hands after the street and before eating;
- confine ourselves to close contacts with unfamiliar people who may be carriers of helicobacteriosis
- stop using alcohol and smoking
- For the first symptoms of a digestive disorder, seek help from doctors.