Jade: Symptoms and Treatment
Jade in medicine refers to a whole group of various inflammatory diseases of the kidneys. All of them have different etiology, as well as the mechanism of development, symptomatic and pathomorphological features. In this group, clinicians refer to local or widespread processes in which the proliferation, partial or complete destruction of the kidney tissue.
Disease can occur in people from different age groups. Also develops nephritis in children and in the elderly, but a little less often. This pathological condition can be both an independent disease and develop against the background of already existing diseases in the human body.
The nephrite in medicine is divided into several species that have their own etiology, symptomatology and flow characteristics. All kinds are dangerous for health and life, therefore, once a person finds out the first symptoms of the disease development, it is recommended to immediately apply to a medical institution.
- glomerulonephritis. This disease affects the kidney glomeruli. In frequent cases, this type of jade develops due to previously transferred angina and other ailments, the occurrence of which was provoked by hemolytic streptococcus. A characteristic sign of glomerulonephritis is hematuria. Develop edema, there is pain in the lower back, blood pressure rises
- pyelonephritis (purulent nephritis). The inflammatory process affects the renal pelvis, calyx and kidney parenchyma. The causative agents of the disease are staphylococci, E. coli and other bacteria. In the kidney pathogenic microflora comes from other parts of the genitourinary system, but it can also be brought by blood flow from other foci of infection already present in the body. When pyelonephritis temperature rises, there is a severe headache and back pain. Urination is frequent and painful;
- Interstitial. The inflammatory process covers the tubules and the interstitial tissue of the kidneys. This disease can be caused by taking certain groups of synthetic medications. Also, the cause of development can become viral infections. The first symptoms: swelling, blood in the urine, weakness, increased blood pressure, polyuria, pain in the area where the kidneys are located;
- Radiation. The disease develops after prolonged exposure to the body of ionizing radiation. As a rule, this leads to the fact that the inflammatory process affects the renal tubules;
- shunt. It is characterized by the combination of antibody complexes near the glomeruli of the kidneys
- hereditary. Its appearance in the human body is directly related to the existing congenital pathologies of the kidneys.
In order to relate the disease to a particular type, in each clinical case it is necessary to first identify the nature and prevalence of the inflammatory process in the kidneys, the nature of the course of the disease. Clinicians use a certain classification of nephritis for a more accurate diagnosis.
According to the localization and spread of the pathological process, the ailment is divided into:
- Focal. The inflammatory process «attacks» the renal interstitial tissue
- Diffuse. Renal glomeruli are affected.
According to the course of the disease, the following types are distinguished:
- Acute nephritis. In this case, there is an acute disruption of kidney function. As a rule, this is due to the negative impact of pathogenic microflora. But also it can happen under the influence of toxic and immune causes;
- Chronic nephritis. Two kidneys are affected in this form of the disease. The process is chronic. Defeat of kidney cells is associated with immune, metabolic, toxic and infectious factors.
According to etiology, the ailment is divided into:
According to the absence or presence of kidney functions, nephritis is divided into:
- ailment with preservation of kidney functioning;
- Ailment with kidney failure.
This classification is generally accepted and allows more accurate diagnosis and further appropriate treatment.
As mentioned above, the disease for development reasons can be primary or secondary. In the first case, nephritis is formed due to primary renal diseases. The primary form occupies about 80% of all clinical cases of morbidity.
The secondary form of nephritis develops against the background of existing pathological processes in the body.
The causative agents of jade:
The main causes of jade:
- autoimmune diseases
- nephropathy in pregnancy
- amyloid dystrophy;
- insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
- oncological diseases
- diseases of infectious nature
- some diseases of the female reproductive system
- urticaria rashes
- long-term use of certain groups of synthetic medicines
- intoxication of the body with poisons or heavy metals.
Acute nephritis is an ailment that often affects young people, as well as children. In most of the clinical situations, the process developed 10-12 days after the person suffered an infectious disease. The first signs of development of acute nephritis — hyperthermia, weakness and weakness, in the lumbar region there is aching pain.
- blood pressure increase
- strong thirst;
- dryness in the mouth
- edema appears. First they are localized on the face, mainly on the eyelids. As the disease progresses, swelling goes to the whole body. Puffiness in a short period of time can acquire significant volumes. In severe cases, there is a chance of developing ascites or accumulation of exudate in the pleural and cardiac cavity.
Acute nephritis affects not only the kidneys. Also affects the cardiovascular system of the body, in particular, the vessels of the kidney itself.
The course of the acute form of this disease in most cases is favorable. Treatment can be long (up to three months), but, as a rule, it ends with complete recovery of the patient. In some cases, a slight increase in pressure may occur over a period of 6 months. For health, this is not dangerous and you do not need to treat this condition.
Negative completion of the disease — its transition to a chronic stage. This is possible if, within 9 months from the onset of the disease, its main symptoms do not disappear. Usually this happens in the event that a person has been misdiagnosed or has been treated incorrectly. Chronic nephritis is characterized by alternation of periods of exacerbation with periods of calm.
Chronic jade takes a very long time. The patient himself at the same time feels a constant weakness, weakness, fatigue. He also develops headaches, slightly increases blood pressure, and reduces appetite. If urine is analyzed, red blood cells in small quantities, protein and cylinders are found in it.
The danger of chronic nephritis lies in the fact that with every aggravation of it more and more renal glomeruli die. Themselves, the buds «wrinkle» and decrease in size. If you do not have adequate treatment for jade, then a significant number of kidney tissue will die and kidney failure develop.
Other jade symptoms:
- brittle hair and nail plates
- pronounced intoxication of the body
- patient activity is significantly limited;
- vomiting and nausea;
- the skin is dry, jaundiced, can peel;
- muscle pain;
- urine cloudy, it can «float» flakes.
In order to correctly diagnose, you should visit several specialists at once — nephrologist, urologist and therapist. For children, you still need to go to a consultation with a pediatrician.
Basic diagnostic techniques:
- collecting an anamnesis of a patient’s life and complaints
- blood biochemistry
- urine analysis by Nechiporenko
- kidney ultrasound;
- radionuclide diagnostics
Treatment of nephritis is carried out only in a hospital setting with strict adherence to bed rest. The doctor prescribes a diet for nephritis. The patient should drink only 400 ml of water for the first two days and eat 100 grams of sugar. Do not exceed the dose! This is the first stage of a diet for nephritis. Further, a diet with restricted intake of table salt is prescribed. Allowed to knock ate no more than five grams of salt and drink up to 1500 ml of liquid. Also in the diet should limit animal proteins. Fat broths, spicy and salty foods are completely excluded. All this is replaced by low-fat fish, which is recommended only in steamed form. Also, the patient is shown to eat fruits, vegetables and dairy products.
Conservative therapy involves the appointment of the following groups of synthetic medications:
- Immunosuppressive agents
- ascorbic acid
In the complex course of nephritis treatment should only be complex. To the above medicines, cytostatics and glucocorticosteroids are added more tightly. In emergency cases it is shown to carry out hemosorption and plasmapheresis. Also used and surgical treatment, which will be aimed at removing the source of infection from the body.
If developed renal failure, then in this case, the only true method of treatment will be kidney transplantation.
Prevention of acute nephritis is mainly to correct the foci of infection in time. It is also necessary to temper your body and lead a healthy lifestyle.
Preventive measures include:
- regular exercise;
- avoiding hypothermia
- strengthening of immunity;
- avoiding stressful situations;
- timely treat chronic tonsillitis and other infectious diseases