Meningoencephalitis: symptoms and treatment
Meningoencephalitis is a pathological process that affects the brain and its membranes. Most often, the disease is a complication of encephalitis and meningitis. If you do not get treatment in time, then this complication can have an unfavorable prognosis with a fatal outcome. Symptoms of the disease in each person are different, because everything depends on the degree of damage to the central nervous system.
What causes this state?
The following reasons can provoke the presented pathology:
- Encephalitis of the primary group.
- Encephalitis of the secondary group, including measles, chickenpox, rubella
- Demyelinating process.
- Parotent acute meningoencephalitis
- Causes of meningoencephalitis may occur in the inflammation of the paranasal sinuses.
If you consider the disease by the nature of the flow, then in adults and children it can be:
- Lightning fast — the symptoms are fast, which contributes to rapid impairment and leads to death.
- Acute — the symptoms of the disease in children and adults occur very quickly and contribute to a general disorder of the patient.
- Subacute — manifestations of the disease affect the patient’s body slowly and have a worn out character.
- Chronic — flowing sluggishly, does not have severe symptoms, has a period of exacerbation and remission.
How does the disease manifest itself?
Often, meningoencephalitis in children and adults is the consequences of a general septic process. The following symptoms stand out:
- temperature rise;
- excited state
- photophobia, hyperesthesia
Meningeal symptoms are enlarged by signs of brain damage: impaired coordination of movements, anisoreflexia, mental disorders, alexia, aphasic disorders.
In addition, the symptoms of the disease are different in every person, taking into account the type of meningoencephalitis. Children and adults can diagnose such forms of the disease:
- influenza hemorrhagic
Grippous hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis is a consequence of the flu. This form of pathology has a severe course. Her symptoms are as follows:
- temperature rise to a high level
- loss of consciousness
- seizures of epilepsy.
This type of pathology can act as an independent disease or occur in combination with a generalized viral infection. Herpetic meningoencephalitis in newborns and in young children occurs in generalized form, in adults, as a separate disease. Such an ailment can be acute or chronic, sometimes with a complete lack of clinical picture.
This type of disease can occur due to the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus. Infection occurs through the milk of affected animals. As a rule, viral meningoencephalitis manifests itself in the spring-summer period. In the beginning, the symptoms are acute and include:
- high temperature;
- A bad dream.
After 10 days, the manifestations of the disease are supplemented with neurological symptoms, as a result of which the defeat is applied to the cerebellum and the central nervous system. The disease is auspicious, and focal manifestations regress. For a long time, the sewage system has been preserved.
Very rarely newborns, young children and adults are diagnosed with amoebic meningoencephalitis. This pathology is considered very dangerous, since it has a high mortality rate. Amoebic meningoencephalitis can be picked up in freshwater reservoirs. The latent period lasts 1-14 days.
For this form of ailment is characterized by the defeat of the soft shell of the brain with the formation of brucellosis granules. The duration of the course is long and is accompanied by paresis and paralysis, a violation of the mental state.
For the brucellosis form, a very severe course is characteristic, the patient is placed in a hospital. Diagnosis takes place on an individual basis. Here you will need to take tests, go through a brain imaging, a lumbar puncture.
Such a disease affects the shell of the brain and is bacterial in nature. There is purulent meningoencephalitis because of the penetration into the body of meningococci, staphylococci, bacterial agents. Purulent form of the disease can be primary or secondary.
Tuberculosis meningoencephalitis is characterized by a secondary inflammation of the membranes of the brain. As a rule, it affects the disease of people suffering from various forms of tuberculosis. Very often, tuberculosis meningoencephalitis is diagnosed in young children and newborns. Most often affects the body in the winter-spring period, although there is a risk of infection at any time of the year.
Tuberculosis meningoencephalitis has the following manifestations:
- increased irritability;
- poor sleep;
- Poor appetite
- frequent headaches.
Veterinary meningoencephalitis is a complication of chickenpox in young children and newborns. As a rule, the course of meningoencephalitis is severe, despite the fact that it affects the disease rarely. Chickenpox meningoencephalitis is formed on the background of rash, fever and lymphadenitis. Find out the chickenpox meningoencephalitis for the following symptoms:
- convulsive condition
- feverish delirium.
If we are talking about a form of the disease, such as a virus, its consequences are a common phenomenon. If the patient’s immunity is weakened or if diagnosis and treatment are late, it will lead to complications such as paralysis, paresis and epileptic seizures.
The effects of the herpetic form are accompanied by the formation of postnecrotic cysts, mental retardation, hydrocephalus may occur.
The consequences of the disease are a violation of the functioning of the brain. It is on how much the damage to the central nervous system, the further life of the patient will depend.
If a child has suffered an anemia at an early age, then further it can cause mental and mental retardation. Very serious complications of meningoencephalitis in newborns, prone to the formation of its generalized forms.
Treatment of meningoencephalitis should take place in the infectious department. Only timely therapy will promote a speedy recovery and a favorable outcome. When the diagnosis was carried out and the cause of the disease was determined, the patient is sent to the infectious disease department, where he must create all conditions for rapid and complex therapy.
Puncture of cerebrospinal fluid is a method of treatment, thanks to which it is possible to determine the causes, alleviate the condition and reduce intracranial pressure. After the doctor appoints a set of activities, the purpose of which is to eliminate the causes of the disease, symptoms and complications. During the therapy, a variety of medications can be used:
- drugs to improve blood microcirculation
- multivitamins with a high content of groups B and E;
- anticholinesterase agents
For final elimination of the consequences, reflex and physiotherapy can be used.
Patients who suffered this terrible disease, it is necessary to visit the neurologist all the time and be registered in the dispensary. If viral meningoencephalitis was transferred, then sanatorium-and-spa treatment is appointed, the purpose of which is to strengthen the protective functions of the body. Rehabilitation for the treatment of the disease takes a very long time.
Meningoencephalitis is a very terrible brain disease that can affect both children and adults. Sometimes it is very difficult to determine it by the first signs, but in case of their formation it is necessary to consult with a specialist in order to avoid serious consequences.