Microbial eczema: symptoms and treatment
Microbial eczema is a fairly common form, as it is diagnosed in 27% of cases among all patients diagnosed with eczema. It differs in that it is not an independent ailment, but develops on the affected skin lesions before any pathology.
Based on the name, it becomes clear that the main source of the disease is the pathological effect of pathogenic microorganisms, but there are a number of other predisposing factors.
The clinical picture will be slightly different, depending on the form in which the disease occurs. The most characteristic feature is the appearance of itchy and wetting foci of inflammation.
Diagnoses and prescribes treatment by a dermatologist. To establish the correct diagnosis, the data obtained during the physical examination and a wide range of laboratory tests will be required.
Treatment of microbial eczema directly depends on the etiologic factor, but is often limited to conservative methods.
In the international classification of diseases, this pathology belongs to the category of other dermatitis, which will cause the ICD-10 code to be L 20-L 30.
In most cases, the causative agent of microbial eczema are:
- beta-hemolytic streptococci
- epidermal or Staphylococcus aureus;
- Proteins and Klebsiella
- Neisserias that cause gonorrhea or meningitis
- fungi of the genus Candida
As the background pathological condition in which there was a violation of the integrity of the skin, can act:
- varicose veins
- trophic ulcers
- poorly healing wounds from operations or injuries
- a wide range of slow-moving fungal diseases of the skin.
In addition, the formation of an ailment can contribute to abrasions and fistulas, as well as other structural damage to the skin.
The pathogenesis of the disease consists in the fact that the underlying disease leads to a decrease in the barrier function of the skin, and the chronic influence of pathogenic agents causes a sensitization of the human body. Against this background, autoimmune processes are formed, which in fact cause such a disease.
Thus, the main risk group is made up of persons who:
- the immune system is weakened;
- there are signs of allergic diathesis
- Digestive problems occur
- increased susceptibility to stressful situations
- allergic diseases occur
- The functioning of the endocrine system has been diagnosed, including the adrenal and pituitary glands, the thyroid gland and the ovaries;
- Non-compliance with personal hygiene
All the aforementioned etiological factors are responsible for the development of microbial eczema in children and adults. From this it follows that pathology has no limitations with regard to gender and age category.
Specialists in the field of dermatology are divided into the following varieties of such a disease:
- nummular — has a second name — coin-like. Characterized by the fact that most often affects the skin of hands on which there are isolated eczematous foci, in volumes no more than three centimeters. In addition, it is prone to proliferation and is not amenable to therapy;
- varicose — is formed due to venous insufficiency and varicose veins, which means that it is often localized on the lower limbs;
- mycotic — a similar variety develops against the background of already existing fungal lesions of the skin of the upper and lower limbs;
- sycosiform — differs in that the source of this variety is sycosis, which, in turn, is a pustular lesion of the skin. The causative agent is the most common staphylococcus aureus. The favorite places of defeat are the face and scalp, axillary hollows and pubis.
Separately isolated microbial eczema of the nipples, which occurs as a result of their trauma in the process of breastfeeding the baby. In addition, it is often diagnosed in individuals infected with scabies.
Since there are several types of disease, it is quite natural that each of them has its own clinical manifestations.
Varicose eczema or microbial eczema on the legs is expressed in such symptoms:
- mild skin itching
- the presence of clear boundaries of the inflammatory focus;
- rash polymorphism
The nomular coin-like or plaque eczema is characterized by:
- the appearance of rounded lesions, the volumes of which can vary from one to three centimeters
- the presence of clear edges separating the healthy skin from the patient
- pathological redness;
- swelling and wetting
- the appearance of a layer of serous-purulent crust.
Such a species is also known as microbial eczema on the hands, since only this area is involved in pathology.
Sycosiform eczema or microbial eczema on the face is accompanied by the appearance on the skin of the foci, which is supplemented by severe skin itching and mocclusion, i.e., secretion of a specific fluid from the wound. The posttraumatic form of the disease has similar clinical signs, but is localized around the wounds, scratches or abrasions.
Symptoms of nipple microbial eczema:
- the appearance of foci of inflammation of bright red color
- crack formation
- severe itching
- pronounced painful sensations
- the formation of crusts on the surface of wounds.
Similar signs, characteristic of a particular type of disease, are also appropriate to refer to the development of microbial eczema in a child.
The chronic form of the disease is characterized by an extensive erosive lesion of the skin, which means that the microbial eczema is transformed into a true one.
To establish the cause of microbial eczema requires a comprehensive approach. Before prescribing laboratory studies, a dermatologist must perform several manipulations independently:
- study the patient’s medical history — since such a disease has a pathological basis, it is often enough to establish the most characteristic etiologic factor for a particular person
- perform a thorough physical examination of the inflammation foci that can be localized on the arms and legs, in the axillary cavities and the pubic area, on the face or on the scalp
- conduct a detailed interview of the patient — this is necessary to determine the first time of appearance and severity of the infection process.
Laboratory research is based on implementation:
- bakposseva detachable or scraping from the affected area of the skin — to establish the pathogen and assess its sensitivity to antibiotics
- scraping for pathogenic fungi
- histological examination of the biopsy specimen
- general clinical and biochemical blood test
During the diagnosis of microbial eczema, the child and adult are not referred to the implementation of instrumental diagnostic measures.
All of the above diagnostic methods allow not only to put the right diagnosis, but also differentiate the ailment from:
- Other types of eczema;
- primary reticulosis of the skin;
- a family pemphigus that has a benign course.
The tactic of how to cure microbial eczema is directly dictated by the etiological factor, for example:
- when fungal skin lesions are performed by local or course treatment of the underlying ailment
- With pyoderma, the reception of medicines, treatment of skin areas with antibacterial substances and therapeutic ointments is shown
- Specific elimination of trophic ulcers and sycosis.
Directly in the treatment of microbial eczema are used such drugs:
- desensitizing drugs
- Vitamin Complexes
- antimicrobial ointments for topical use
- astringent and antibacterial drugs
Among the most effective physiotherapy procedures are:
- ozone therapy;
- laser therapy;
- UFD and UHF
It is also possible to treat microbial eczema by using lotions from decoctions based on:
- Strings and nettles
- Birches and marigolds
- Hypericum and yarrow
It should be noted that the elimination of eczema in infants and young children is carried out by the most gentle methods.
In addition, therapy must include:
- A hypoallergenic diet with microbial eczema — a gentle diet is made by the attending physician individually for each patient
- Careful observance of personal hygiene rules
- The course of taking glucocorticoids — in cases of transition of the disease to a true eczema.
Prevention and Forecast
To prevent the development of bacterial eczema:
- respect the rules of personal hygiene
- Prevent infection of wounds and other structural lesions of the skin
- treat at an early stage those ailments that lead to the development of eczema on the legs, hands, face and any other localization.
When establishing such a diagnosis, patients are concerned about the problem — is microbial eczema infectious or not? The disease is conditionally contagious, as it can be infected with a significant increase in the number of pathogenic microflora and in the presence of one of the predisposing factors.
As for the prognosis of microbial eczema, in most cases it is favorable. Long-term and persistent therapy is observed only in weakened and elderly patients.