Microsporia: Symptoms and Treatment
Microsporia is a mildew disease that affects the skin and hair of a person, but sometimes the nails are also involved in the pathological process. The disease got its name from the pathogen — a fungal microorganism from the genus Microsporum. This ailment is known by the term «ringworm», which is due to the peculiarities of its symptoms. It is worth noting that microsporia is a disease that affects not only humans but also animals.
Most often, microsporia is diagnosed in children aged 1 to 13 years. But also this disease often affects the fair sex. People who have a history of pathology of the endocrine system, hypovitaminosis or those that have a significant decrease in the reactivity of the organism are often infected.
As stated above, the pathogen of microsporia in children and adults is a fungus of the genus Microsporum. According to their etiological characteristics these pathogenic microorganisms are divided into:
- zoophiles. These microorganisms parasitize animals
- Anthropophiles. The place of their parasitism is the human body
- geophiles. Parasitize in the earth.
The most contagious microorganism is the anthropophilic fungus. In this case, the source of infection is a person. From his body spores of the fungus extend to household items — linens, toys and stuff. In this case, there is a contact-household way of transmission of infection.
The zoophilic appearance of fungal microorganisms is transmitted to humans when they come into contact with infected animals. Most often in the role of the spreader of infection are pets — guinea pigs, cats, dogs, hamsters and the like. Infection occurs both in contact with a sick animal and in contact with objects on which its coat or particles of dead skin could remain.
The latent period of microsporia in humans is up to 7 days, after which the first symptoms of the disease begin to manifest. It is worth noting that the nature of the manifestations of microsporia is due to the localization of pathological foci, the depth of introduction of the fungus into the skin.
The first symptom of microsporia of smooth skin is the appearance of a red spot on the skin. This place is the introduction of a fungal microorganism. Gradually, this element increases and a roller appears at its edge, consisting of bubbles and nodules. The central part gradually changes its color to pink. Its surface shows peeling. Visually, this pathological formation has the appearance of a ring.
In microspores of this type, one to three foci of inflammation are formed. The maximum size of one ring is up to 3 cm. Location:
- on the face
Very rarely, the progression of this pathological process is accompanied by a symptom such as itching. But sometimes it does appear and is temperate. More rarely, pathological rings are formed on the palms and soles. Sometimes the nail plates are also involved in the process (their edge is affected). First, a spot appears on the nail, gradually acquiring a white color. In the area of damage, the structure of the nail can collapse.
Defeat of hair
It is more often diagnosed in children from 5 to 12 years. This kind of microsporia of adults affects infrequently, as there are acids on their hair that do not allow the fungus to fully develop. Noteworthy is the fact that the disease is almost never diagnosed in children having a red hair color.
Symptoms of the disease appear usually on day 5 after infection. Usually, two foci are formed, up to 5 cm in size. The shape is round. Small foci can form along the edges of the main foci.
In the first days after infection, the pathogenic microorganism is localized at the mouth of the hair bulb. On day 6, the hair is already affected. Their structure becomes fragile, which leads to their further destruction. Usually they break at a level of 4 mm from the skin. The rest of the hair is covered with plaque — this is the spores of the fungus. The skin is inflamed, hyperemic and edematous.
If you have the first symptoms that indicate the development of the disease, it is important to contact the medical institution as soon as possible to conduct a comprehensive diagnosis. To confirm the diagnosis, clinicians resort to the 3 most informative studies:
- luminescent method;
Treatment of microsporia is carried out both in a hospital and at home. Therapy for different types of pathology is somewhat different. Thus, with microsporia of smooth skin, antifungal agents are prescribed for external use.
Treat microsporia with severe inflammation followed by the use of combined pharmaceuticals containing hormones.
Treating the microsporia of the scalp is a little more difficult. The treatment plan for the disease is:
- griseofulvin reception
- Wash your head 2 times a week;
- Daily hair at the site of the focus should be shaved
- rubbing into place of lesion of antifungal ointments
Any disease is easier to prevent than to treat later. This rule also applies to this ailment. Prevention of microsporia in the first place is to identify patients and their treatment. To this end, it is necessary to systematically carry out preventive examinations in kindergartens and schools. When a patient is identified, his things are immediately hospitalized and disinfected.
Prevention of microsporia is also the following:
- Limiting contact with animals. Domestic pets should be regularly taken for inspection to a veterinarian;
- using only your personal hygiene items
- restrict contact with persons infected with the fungus and treated with it.