Mycosis of the feet: symptoms and treatment
Foot mycoses are ailments of any nature that affect the skin and nails of a person. In medical circles, foot mycosis is also called dermatophytes. Most often, the place of primary localization of the pathological process is interdigital folds (there are rare exceptions). If at this stage, do not subject mycosis stop medication or treatment with folk remedies, then gradually it will go beyond them.
Clinicians distinguish 7 clinical forms of the disease:
- nail damage or onychomycosis
- Intertriginous or speculative;
For foot mycoses, the chronic course is more characteristic — the disease can gradually progress for several years. Such a monotonous flow («dry type») is more typical for the elderly. In young people, the disease is acute, with exudative clinical manifestations.
In the spread of foot mycoses, the main role belongs to different saunas, showers, swimming pools and other places where there are many people. Dermatophyte penetrates into the epidermis through rubbing, intertrigo, minor wounds, and also due to excessive dryness of the skin or, conversely, increased sweating.
Forms and Symptoms
Symptoms of the disease directly depend on the form of the disease. In some cases, they can be more pronounced or, conversely, «erased». When finding the first signs of pathology, it is recommended to immediately consult a dermatologist for confirmation or refutation of the diagnosis. Do not engage in self-medication with the help of synthetic medicines or folk remedies.
In most clinical situations, it is the initial stage in the development of mycosis of the feet. At this stage, the clinical picture of the disease is rather meager. When viewed from the patient, you can see a slight peeling between the fingers (sometimes only in one crease). Sometimes it is also possible to note the presence of small cracks, affecting only the upper layer of the epidermis. These signs of mycosis to a person do not cause absolutely no concern.
In such a course of the pathological process, the patient has the following symptoms: the skin between the fingers is peeled off by small lamellar scales, then the hyperemia of the skin becomes attached, as well as minor itching. There is no evidence of inflammation.
For this form of illness characterized by the formation of flat papules and lichenitized nimular plaques that have a bluish-reddish color (a characteristic symptom). As a rule, they are localized mainly on the arches of the feet. The entire surface of the formations is covered on top by layers of gray-white scales. The boundaries are clear. A small «border» is formed along the periphery, represented by exfoliating epidermis. If you take a closer look at the rashes, you can also note the formation of single bubbles.
Pathological rashes tend to fade. As a result, diffuse foci are formed, the sizes of which can be very large. Gradually they affect completely the entire sole, the rear and the side surfaces of the foot.
In addition to such foci, hyperkeratotic formations (as diffuse homozolality) can form in this form. They have a yellow color and are covered with cracks throughout the surface. In this case, the skin of a person is dry, there is moderate soreness and itching.
In its clinical manifestations, it is very similar to ordinary diaper rash. The disease affects mainly the interdigital folds between 3 and 4, 4 and 5 fingers. The skin at the site of localization of the pathological process acquires a red shade and becomes edematous.
Later, maceration and wetting are added to these symptoms. Without timely treatment with medicines and folk remedies, painful and deep cracks and erosion will begin to form. The following symptoms are also noted: tenderness of the affected area, itching and severe burning.
It is characterized by the formation of a large number of bubbles, having a thick tire. The favorite localization of the pathological process is the arches of the feet. The rash has a tendency to spread, so if you do not timely treat mycosis foot, then they can spread to the entire surface of the foot, the interdigital folds and the skin of the fingers themselves.
Small bubbles with time begin to merge and form multi-chambered bubbles of large sizes, which can break through and erosion (pink-red color) will occur in their place. As the inflammatory phenomena increase, these symptoms are also accompanied by swelling of the skin and hyperemia.
After the inflammatory process subsides, three zones are formed at the site of primary localization of a large focus. In the central zone, you can see pink-red smooth skin with a light bluish tint. In the middle zone there are erosions, of which a small amount of serous fluid is released (all this is against the background of swelling and hyperemia). On the periphery there are multi-chambered bubbles. These skin areas itch.
This form can be considered as a sensitization to fungi-causative agents of this disease. The development of this form begins with the progression of exudative mycosis of the feet. The skin in the region of the shin and foot becomes edematic and hyperemic. Soon on it there are numerous vesicles and vesicles, inside of which there is a serous-purulent exudate. Opening of the formation causes numerous erosions. A person’s body temperature rises rapidly to high figures.
Additional symptoms are lymphangitis, bilateral pahovo-femoral lymphadenitis, weakness, difficulty walking, headache.
Diagnosis of the disease is based on the detection of pathogenic fungus during microscopic examination, as well as on clinical manifestations.
Mycosis of the foot is necessary only in a hospital setting or under the constant supervision of a doctor in charge. In no case can you self-medicate folk remedies without first consulting with your doctor. Not all the funds that come up to one person will also suit another well. And the uncontrolled use of medicines or folk remedies can only aggravate the course of the disease.
Mycosis of feet is treated in two stages — preparatory and basic.
The priority goal of the preparatory phase is to eliminate inflammation in the case of a dyshidrotic and intertriginous form, and also to remove the resulting horny stratifications (this is typical for the squamous-hyperkeratotic form). If maceration has reached a large size, there is abundant wetting and numerous erosive surfaces, then in this case it is shown to conduct warm foot baths with a weak solution of potassium permanganate and make lotions with a solution of boric acid. It is also possible at this time to resort to folk recipes, but only with the permission of his attending physician. Foot baths with herbs give amazing results.
At the time when the patient takes the foot baths, he should carefully remove the crusts and macerated epidermis from the feet. After that, a special cream with active substances — antibiotics and corticosteroid hormones — is applied to the cleared areas. It is strictly forbidden to use ointments!
Creams for the treatment of fungal infections:
- Cestoderm B with a ghramycin
Once the acute inflammation begins to subside, you can stop taking foot baths. At this stage, you can start using ointments that contain the same active substances as creams in their composition.
The next stage of treatment can begin with the use of creams, and then ointments. To remove horny strata from the affected areas, doctors recommend resorting to keratolytic methods and means. Best of all with the task in hand copes with salicylic petrolatum. Its thin layer is applied to the site of the localization of the lesion two times a day until the horn masses are completely removed.
Milk-salicylic collodion also has a good therapeutic effect. The preparation shows lubricating the soles twice a day for eight days. After that doctors appoint for the night to do a compress from salicylic vaseline. The final stage of treatment — foot soap and soda bath.
The main goal of the main stage of treatment of mycosis is to destroy the infectious agent, in this case the fungus.
Treatment of folk remedies of this ailment can only be an auxiliary therapy, but not the main method of treatment.
Preventive maintenance of foot mycoses is reduced, first of all, to personal and public hygiene measures. It is necessary to monitor the state of public baths, saunas and showers. You also need to fight with sweating and dry skin.