Myopia: symptoms and treatment


Myopia is a pathological condition characterized by violation of refraction both of one eye and both. In this case, the main optical focus is located between the retina and the lens of the visual apparatus. Because of such pathological changes, the sick person begins to distinguish badly objects that are located at a certain distance from it.

In the medical literature, myopia of the eye is also called myopia. The disease was named precisely because the person is much better at distinguishing objects and people in the immediate vicinity of him.

Medical statistics are such that myopia of the eye is a fairly common pathology of the visual apparatus. It affects over 25% of the world’s population. Therefore, it is important as early as possible to prevent the disease. It is also worth noting that sometimes there is congenital myopia. But still more often it is diagnosed in adolescents. Over time, this pathological condition can gradually progress.

With short-sightedness, the light entering the eye is refracted by the lens and projected in front of the retina. Precisely because the central focal point is located in front of the retina, a person can not really see objects located at a certain distance from it. The picture is blurred.

With myopia of a weak degree, the patient does not see distant objects well, but they are close. If the ailment continues to progress, then soon the patient will cease to normally see and close objects. Progressing myopia can cause a patient to be handicapped. But myopia can also not be progressive. In this case, vision is disturbed only when looking into the distance. Treatment of this condition is usually not required. Doctors conduct only its correction.

Etiology

There are many reasons for the progress of myopia. As the main, we can distinguish the following:


  • heredity. Myopia is transmitted at the gene level. If one of the parents has such a disease, then with 25% probability it will be transmitted to his child. Myopia in children, in whom both parents have this ailment, progresses in 50% of cases
  • malnutrition
  • increased load on the visual apparatus — one of the main causes of myopia
  • hypodynamia
  • pathology of the visual apparatus
  • increased intracranial pressure
  • birth injuries;
  • CWT of varying severity;
  • hormonal failure
  • intoxication;
  • Previously ailments of bacterial, viral and fungal nature.

Degrees

In total, there are 3 degrees of myopia in medicine. All of them differ in the degree of severity of the pathological process, symptoms.

Degrees of myopia:


  1. myopia 1 degree. In this case, refractive error does not exceed 3 diopters. The visual function is practically not broken. With a mild degree of myopia, the contours of objects located in the distance are slightly blurred, but a person can still see them. Other symptoms of this pathology are: narrowing of the eyes to see distant objects, pain in the forehead, temples, orbitals, fatigue of the visual apparatus and increased dryness of the mucosa
  2. myopia of 2nd degree. The degree of refractive error is from 3 to 6 diopters. Progression of medium degree myopia leads to changes in the fundus, so it is important to begin to treat it as soon as possible. This degree of myopia is diagnosed in 14% of people out of the total number of patients suffering from this ailment. The main symptom is a decrease in visual function to the extent that the patient begins to see bad things that are 25 cm away from him. Also, with myopia of moderate degree, twilight vision worsens, slight eyelashes, a headache and increased fatigue of the visual apparatus. It is important when you receive such signs immediately go to the ophthalmologist for treatment. If myopia of medium degree will progress, then flashes will begin to appear before your eyes, the permeability of the blood vessels of the feeding eyes will increase. In severe cases, even detachment of the retina is possible;
  3. myopia of grade 3. Myopia of a high degree is most severe, as refractive error exceeds 6 diopters. This ailment is dangerous, as it leads to the progression of dangerous complications. People with high degree myopia practically do not see objects. The world without glasses merges for them into one big blurry spot. Often the ailment is accompanied by astigmatism. Symptoms of myopia of a high degree: narrowing of eyes, thinning of the retina and a significant increase in the permeability of the blood vessels of the visual apparatus, headaches of varying intensity. In severe cases, the retina deforms.

Symptoms

The main symptom of high degree myopia, medium and weak, is the difficulty in distinguishing objects that are far from the sick person. In addition, there are also such signs:


  • The eye sclera may have a bluish tint;
  • headache of varying degrees of intensity;
  • a person constantly screw up his eyes to better see distant objects
  • light flies, threads and flashes appear before your eyes
  • there is a desire to rub your eyes to slightly improve the clarity of the image;
  • the eye gap widens, so there may be a featherglass
  • diminishing vision;
  • the visual apparatus is quickly fatigued;
  • eye pain;
  • the eyes are constantly tensed.

If you have these symptoms, you should immediately contact a qualified medical professional to conduct a competent diagnosis and prescribe the correct treatment plan.

Separately it is necessary to allocate a myopia at pregnancy. Pregnancy is not a pathology, but a complex condition for the female body, which leads to changes in almost all organs and systems. This applies to the visual apparatus. Myopia can provoke the appearance of such problems during childbearing:


  1. In the third trimester, there may be complications from the sides of the retina
  2. vision may decrease due to early or late toxicosis
  3. A high degree of myopia during labor can lead to detachment of the retina. Therefore, the presence of such an ailment can be a contraindication for childbirth.

Healing measures

Treatment of myopia should be performed as soon as the diagnosis has been confirmed. To date, there are several ways that make it possible to restore normal visual acuity.





Drug Therapy

It is carried out by courses. Therapy should be given to patients with varying degrees of myopia. With medium degree myopia, weak and high appoint such pharmaceutical means:


  • Calcium preparations;
  • B vitamins
  • funds that stimulate circulation of blood in the brain

It is important to remember that such means have some contraindications, which the doctor must take into account when appointing them.

Correction with lenses and glasses

The strength of lenses by a doctor is selected strictly individually. Which method of correction to choose — glasses or lenses, depends on the patient’s preferences. But it is worth noting that the lens has some contraindications, such as allergies or individual intolerance.

Hardware Therapy

In this case, doctors resort to the use of a laser, an acomodotrener, and also to color-pulse treatment.

Surgical procedures

They resorted to in the case of rapid progression of the disease. The main goal is to stop the development of the disease. With high degree myopia, the patient is replaced by a lens.

Laser correction

An effective procedure that allows you to restore your eyesight. Has some contraindications, among which:


  1. glaucoma;
  2. Cataract
  3. age under 18;
  4. inflammatory ailments of the elements of the visual apparatus

Prevention

Scientists have found that the disease begins to progress even in childhood. Therefore, prevention should be done from childhood.

Prevention of myopia:


  • regular charging for the eyes — an excellent prevention of pathology of the elements of the visual apparatus
  • correct landing while studying — another important measure of prevention. The back is not allowed to buckle, the head should look straight;
  • balanced nutrition
  • protection of the eyes from active exposure to ultraviolet radiation
  • examinations from an ophthalmologist — a measure of prevention, which will help not to prevent not only myopia, but also other diseases of the visual apparatus.