Myositis: symptoms and treatment

The defeat of the muscles caused by a traumatic, inflammatory or toxic character and resulting from the influence of various factors predominantly on the muscle fibers, causing their weakening and even atrophy, is called myositis. It is a disease that is displayed primarily on the human skeletal muscles: the back, neck, chest and other groups.

If a person is characterized by the manifestation of inflammatory reactions on all muscle groups, then this is already evidence of polymyositis. In addition, myositis can grow into a more complicated stage, which starts lesions of skin areas, which indicates the development of dermatomyositis.


Myositis refers to severe types of diseases, which are characterized by a negative effect on the muscles of a person, causing unpleasant pain and sometimes leading to fatal consequences. Isolate the following types of inflammatory processes in the muscles, depending on their location:

  • Myositis of the neck
  • Myositis of the dorsal muscles
  • Myositis of the chest;
  • Myositis of gastrocnemius.

Most often, people suffer from cervical myositis, and less often — calf. The disease is characterized by the defeat of people as the elderly, and a younger contingent, as well as toddlers. You can protect yourself from the disease, but, first of all, you need to know about him a maximum of information, which the article will tell you about.

Myositis of the neck muscles is a common and common ailment among people who are affected primarily by the neck muscular system. Cervical myositis is also the most dangerous ailment, as it localizes not only the muscles, but also affects the temporal part, the region of the head and cervical vertebrae. Myositis of the neck muscles is caused by the negative influence of cold on the muscle tissue, which actually leads to their inflammation. But the reasons for the localization of the disease will be discussed later.

Myositis of the back muscles is also a fairly frequent human malaise, through which the back is affected. The inflammatory process begins its onset on the surface of the muscle fibers and spreads to the skin and even bone tissue.

Thoracic myositis manifests itself in rare cases, but is characterized by spreading to the shoulders, arms, neck.

The gastrocnemius is the most rare disease, but it entails great problems. Due to the defeat of the gastrocnemius muscle, a person is characterized by a manifestation of weakness in the legs, up to the impossibility of movement.

Depending on the stage of development of the disease, the following two types of disease are distinguished:

  1. Acute , which is characterized by sudden damage to certain muscle groups and characterized by a painful manifestation of symptoms.
  2. Chronic , manifested due to the long absence of treatment. Symptomatic in chronic form is less pronounced, but manifests itself (for no reason) during a person’s life.

Ossifying myositis

Separate species should be isolated and ossifying myositis, which is characteristic formation of petrification of muscle sites. As a result of ossification of muscle sites, their growth occurs, which entails serious ailments. The ossifying myositis is divided into three subspecies:

  • Traumatic;
  • Progressive;
  • Tropha-neurotic

Traumatic ossifying myositis is characterized by the speed of localization and the presence of a solid component in the muscle that resembles sarcoma. Traumatic subspecies occurs mainly in childhood and often in boys.

Progressive ossifying myositis is characterized by formation during intrauterine development of the fetus. Ossification of muscles in a progressive subspecies is due to the duration of the disease.

Trophoneurotic ossifying myositis has similar signs with a traumatic appearance and differs only in the causes of formation: it occurs as a result of disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Causes of the disease

What is myositis, and what varieties of it are now known, it is still necessary to find out what causes signs of the disease. Let’s consider the main causes of an ailment in a person.

So, in medicine, there are the following main reasons for the formation of inflammatory processes in the human muscle tissues:

  1. Subcooling of the immediate muscles or the effect of drafts
  2. Muscle Fractures;
  3. Viral diseases
  4. Defeat of muscle tissue by parasitic creatures
  5. Infection into muscle fibers
  6. Toxic or autoimmune damage
  7. Under the influence of frequent stay in one position of the human body
  8. Persistence and duration of statistical types of muscle loads

Let’s consider, what reasons of provocation of an illness are inherent in this or that kinds of this disease.

Cervical myositis occurs often due to the effect of cold on the surface of the body. A secondary cause of the formation of this species is the common cold, muscle strain and uncomfortable posture.

Dorsal myositis occurs due to the following factors:

  • ingress of infectious or bacterial microorganisms
  • with osteochondrosis or scoliosis
  • due to frequent prevalence of heavy physical exertion, overvoltage
  • with swelling or hypothermia
  • Often myositis of the back muscles occurs during pregnancy, when the fetus grows with each day, and the load on the back increases.

Chest miositis occurs as a result of the following factors:

  1. injuries;
  2. pathological abnormalities of connective tissue
  3. rheumatism, scoliosis and arthritis
  4. if an infection occurs.

It is not excluded the formation of inflammatory processes of the chest through its supercooling or constant tension.

The disease also has the following classification, which is characteristic of the causes of localization of myositis.

  • The predominance of purulent processes that were provoked by anaerobic microorganisms, staphylococci or streptococci is called acute purulent myositis .
  • Viral infections, as well as acute and chronic diseases of the infectious genus, are predominantly called infectious myositis .
  • The causes of the appearance of an autoimmune disorder are called autoimmune myositis .
  • When diffuse inflammation of the whole body’s muscle tissue occurs, the disease polymyositis .
  • With the influence of toxic-allergic components on the muscular system, there is a parasitic myositis .
  • When traumas, bruises or sprains tend to form traumatic myositis .
  • When a physical or infectious effect on intercostal muscles occurs intercostal myositis .
  • The cause of the disease can also be caused by the deposition of calcium salts in the connective tissues, which indicates the disease ossifying myositis .

In addition, such reasons as genetic predisposition, frequent stressful situations and sharp mood swings, as well as ultraviolet radiation, are not excluded. Radioactive radiation in addition to affecting the skin can also cause inflammation of the muscle tissue.

Having information about the causes of the disease, you can try to avoid its localization in all ways. In the case of inflammation of the muscular system, the development of an illness begins, characterized by certain symptoms.


Symptoms of the disease are manifested primarily by the presence of pain in the area of ​​the affected muscles. Consider the symptoms of myositis of each species in more detail.

Symptoms of cervical myositis

Myositis of the neck muscles manifests itself in the form of a predominance of symptoms of dull pain, which often occurs only on one side of the neck. With such pain, it is difficult for a person to turn and lift his head. When the disease develops, the pain spreads, which gives up already in the ear, shoulder, temple and interscapular area. There is also soreness in the vertebrae of the cervical spine.

Cervical myositis also in the early stage of localization is caused by an increase in body temperature, the appearance of chills and even fever. The area of ​​the neck swells up, becomes red and becomes firm. During the touch, there is «infernal pain.»

Myositis of the neck can be both chronic and acute. Acute myositis of the neck occurs unexpectedly, for example, due to injury. Chronic develops gradually, and the basis for its development can serve as an acute species.

Symptoms with spinal myositis

If a person has formed myositis of the back, the symptoms will differ from the previous species. First of all, the myositis of the back or waist has a longer course of the symptoms of the disease. It all starts with a slight stretching of the muscles and a predominance of aching nature. The muscles are in a compacted state, but when you try to stretch them, you feel dull pain.

With the development of the disease often the muscles can atrophy. Pain sensations can be localized not only in the lumbar region, but also spread over the entire surface of the back. In such cases, the spine of the patient is affected, which leads to the appearance of acute pain. When feeling, you can observe the stiffness and swelling of the dorsal muscles. Often the place of pain syndrome is accompanied by a color change, the predominant role of which is taken by purple.

Spinal myositis becomes a consequence of problems with the spine. During the localization of the disease, there is fatigue, weakness, the temperature rises to 37-38 degrees and mild signs of chills.

Symptoms of chest myositis

The disease of the chest muscles manifests itself in the form of a mild symptom. Initially, causing aching pain, turning into a pulling. When pressing on the chest, there is a sharp pain, which can often give to the neck and shoulders.

In the process of developing the disease, acute muscle spasms and morning numbness of muscles occur. There is shortness of breath and muscle atrophy. The spread of the inflammatory process is characterized by the appearance of pain in the hands, shoulders and neck. In addition, the occurrence of such symptoms in chest myositis is also characteristic:

  1. swelling
  2. difficulty swallowing
  3. shortness of breath, cough
  4. headaches and dizziness.

The skin of the chest becomes more sensitive. Night pains lead to a worsening of sleep, which makes the patient irritable. When you feel the skin of the chest, the seals are felt. When exposure to cold pain increases.

Symptoms of ossifying myositis

Symptoms of this kind are of a special nature due to the fact that the inflammatory foci of tissue sites are formed in the deep sections. The ossifying myositis affects the following parts of the body:

  • Thighs
  • Buttocks
  • limbs;
  • Shoulders.

When the disease is localized, there is a soft slight swelling, reminiscent of dough. After a while (depending on the nature of the flow), an ossification of the compaction occurs, which is clearly expressed by signs of pain. This pain allows the specialist to understand the prevalence of the disease and the reason for treatment.

If the treatment is not started, the symptoms are aggravated and manifested as a buildup of swelling and the acquisition of a rough form. The body temperature rises and chills occur closer to 2-3 weeks after the first symptoms. If the disease becomes a complication, then surgical intervention is necessary, otherwise inflammation will spread to neighboring organs and eventually lead to fatal consequences.

Symptoms of myositis of gastrocnemius muscles

A characteristic feature of the myositis of the leg muscles is the predominance of pain in the lower extremities. Initially, it begins an easy reduction of muscles, after which it grows in pain. When you feel your feet, skin coarsening and hardening are observed.

A person with pain in his legs changes his gait, quickly there is fatigue, there is no desire to get out of bed. When warming the muscles, there is a picture of pain reduction, but not until complete cessation. If appropriate measures are not taken, the pain extends to the foot. A person can not move it, since the muscle is in a deformed state, and any attempts to move the feet bring severe pain.

Myositis is a disease that can be treated and successfully eliminated at the initial stages in acute form. Much more difficult is the case with a chronic species. It must be treated annually to prevent the spread of the inflammatory process through the body. Before treatment, you should undergo a diagnosis to identify the type of disease.


Diagnosis includes, in addition to anamnesis, the following types of examinations:

  1. A blood test for enzymes that detect muscle inflammation
  2. Blood test for antibodies on the basis of which the presence of immune diseases will be determined;
  3. MRI, by which the damage to muscle fibers is refined;
  4. The muscle reaction is determined by electromyography.
  5. You will also need a muscle biopsy, which will show the presence of cancer cells.

The main success in getting rid of an ailment is the time in which the patient will address the illness. If the diagnosis is made at an early stage, then treatment will be more effective.


Myositis is treatable, but different methods are used depending on the stage of the deepening of the disease. First of all, you need to comply with bed rest and warming the muscles, which will help reduce pain symptoms.

Myositis is treated using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs:

  • Ketonal
  • Nurofen
  • Diclofenac;
  • Reopyrin

Warming muscles can be done with ointments:

  1. Finalgon
  2. Apizarthron
  3. Nicoflex

These ointments, in addition to warming, also reduce the intensity of the muscles. To treat children at home can be ointment «Doctor Mom.»

If the temperature rises, then antipyretic drugs are used. Mandatory treatment of myositis should be carried out using therapeutic methods. These include:

  • massage;
  • exercise therapy
  • gymnastics;
  • physiotherapy.

Treatment of the myositis of the neck is aimed at relieving pain and removing the cause of the disease. In addition to rubbing the neck with warming ointments, a novocain blockade is prescribed for intolerable pain sensations. With the use of novocaine, a rapid and effective pain reduction is observed.

In the case of the most severe type of myositis-purulent, it will require exclusively surgical intervention. The operation involves forming an incision on the skin in the region of the inflammation focus and removing the pus by installing a special drainage.

Treat the initial stages of the disease can be at home, but more complex in the hospital and under supervision. It is not excluded the appointment of antibiotic drugs to be able to overcome the cause of the disease (viruses, infections).

At home, a new type of treatment is being performed — relaxation post-isometric. Its essence lies in the tension and relaxation of the muscles in a certain period of time. Effective quite effectively.

Treat the disease at home and you can with improvised means:

  1. woolen things
  2. padded jackets
  3. warming from the inside with herbal teas (chamomile).


Prevention includes the following factors: avoiding heavy types of physical work, muscle strains and drafts. Do not overcool and do not sunbathe for a long time. Maintain a healthy lifestyle and hygiene.