Nephritic syndrome: symptoms and treatment
Nephritic syndrome is a pathological condition for which inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidneys with signs of azotemia is characteristic. This process, as a rule, takes place against a background of pronounced hematuria, proteinuria. As a result, salts and liquids are trapped in the human body.
Many people confuse nephrotic syndrome and nephritic syndrome. These are two completely different states. But it is worth noting that none of these terms is not a full-fledged diagnosis, but only determine a person’s condition with certain ailments.
Nephrotic syndrome or nephrosis is a general term for determining kidney damage. Nephritic syndrome or nephritis is an inflammation of the kidney tissues. This is a combination of various characteristic symptoms that are characteristic of jade — pain in the lumbar region, blood or pus in the urine, fever and so on. Nephrotic syndrome is a more dangerous condition and requires immediate treatment in a hospital setting. If the nephrotic syndrome is not eliminated in a timely manner, as well as the underlying disease, it can lead to the development of serious complications or even to death.
Causes of development of pathology
Acute nephritic syndrome in humans progresses due to the following reasons:
- viral diseases. Most often this syndrome progresses against the background of existing hepatitis B, infectious mononucleosis, chicken pox and other diseases that develop due to the penetration of viruses into the body;
- glomerulonephritis is a common cause of the progression of this syndrome;
- diseases of a bacterial nature: sepsis, endocarditis and others
- autoimmune systemic ailments — systemic lupus erythematosus, pulmonary-renal syndrome, etc.
- kidney and urinary tract problems that the patient previously had;
- the effect on the body of radiation
- the introduction of vaccines and various medical serums.
Clinicians distinguish three types of nephritic syndrome:
In most clinical situations, acute nephritic syndrome develops in the patient 7-14 days after his body has been stricken with a streptococcal infection.
- hematuria progresses completely in all patients
- macrohematuria is observed in only 30% of patients. In this case, urine changes color and visually resembles meat slops;
- edema formation. After noon, the face swells, and towards the evening you can note swelling on the legs
- hypertension. If this symptom is not eliminated in time, then it can provoke the progression of left ventricular failure in the future;
- a constant thirst.
Nonspecific symptoms of acute nephritic syndrome:
- increase in body weight;
- Temperature rises in rare clinical situations
- weakening of the body
- Back pain or lower abdominal pain. In some clinical situations, they can irradiate;
- Sometimes the patient has signs of impetigo and scarlet fever.
If you do not pay attention to the above symptoms in time and do not go to a qualified specialist for advice, the acute stage of the illness will soon turn into a chronic one. Chronic nephritic syndrome is much more difficult to cure, because doctors will need to not only eliminate it, but also all the complications that can begin to progress against its background.
There is no special treatment for this pathological condition. The purpose of prescribed therapy is to cure a person of the underlying ailment that triggered the development of the syndrome. The doctor must prescribe to the patient a special diet (№7), which restricts the use of salt and proteins.
If the cause of the progression of the syndrome is an infection, then it is indicated to prescribe antimicrobials of a wide spectrum of action. It is important to identify the causative agent of the underlying disease. For this purpose, the doctor may order the patient to pass urine to carry out LHC culture.
To reduce bcc in the development of hypertension is indicated to take diuretics. But during the period of treatment with this group of drugs, it is necessary to monitor the level of calcium and potassium in the human body. Therefore, it is best to place the patient in a hospital at the time of therapy.
With a nephritic syndrome, the prescribing physician prescribes diet number 7. It is curative and is also prescribed for other kidney and urinary tract diseases. Its main goal is to weaken the burden on the kidneys, lower arterial blood pressure to normal, eliminate the edema formed and activate the process of excretion of metabolic products from the body.
With nephritic syndrome allowed to eat the following foods:
- Vegetarian soups;
- milk, cottage cheese, cream
- lean meat
- cereals: pearl barley, rice, corn
- fish of low-fat varieties. It is best to use it in a boiled form. You can bake;
- tea, broth of wild rose, fruit and vegetable juices
- jelly, jelly, jam.
Products that can not be consumed:
- fat meats
- meat soups and fatty mushroom broths (heavy for the stomach and kidneys)
- spices and sauces with pepper, horseradish and mustard
- Fatty fish. You can not also eat smoked and salted fish
- strong coffee, cocoa
The exact menu is made only by the doctor taking into account the general condition of the patient’s body, as well as the severity of the nephritic syndrome. It also takes into account the patient’s age, weight and other additional parameters. The diet should only be balanced. During treatment, the patient’s body must receive the necessary amount of nutrients, minerals and vitamins.
In order to avoid developing a nephritic syndrome, the patient must adhere to the following recommendations:
- take timely preventive examinations
- If a person previously had kidney disease, then he is advised to periodically do ultrasound of this organ;
- it is important to identify and treat various infectious ailments that can provoke the development of nephritic syndrome;
- Strengthen the immune system. It is important to lead a correct way of life, play sports, be tempered and so on;
- you must refrain from drinking and smoking;
- It’s important to eat right. The body should receive a sufficient amount of useful substances daily
- timely diagnose and treat kidney disease, as against their background most often develops nephritic syndrome.