Neuritis: symptoms and treatment
Neuritis is an inflammatory disease that affects the peripheral nerves. As a consequence, pathological changes in the structure of the nervous tissue are observed. If the inflammatory process affects the trunk of the peripheral nerve, then the person has motor disorders, as well as a decrease in sensitivity. In severe clinical situations, neuritis can cause paralysis.
Most patients confuse neuritis and neuralgia, but these are two completely different concepts. If neuritis is an inflammation, then neuralgia is a term that clinicians use to describe the pain syndrome that occurs in a particular area of the nerve. The reason for this pain is a mechanical trauma.
Neuritis usually provokes viruses and bacteria. Bacteria penetrate into tissues with angina, bronchitis and other ailments. Viruses also settle in the body with the progression of various viral infections — herpes, acute respiratory infections, influenza and so on. It is the pathogenic activity of microorganisms that is the main cause of the progression of the disease. But also the inflammation of the trunk of the peripheral nerve can provoke some endogenous and exogenous causes.
- intoxication of the human body with alcoholic beverages, poor-quality products, certain pharmaceutical drugs
- traumas of varying severity (posttraumatic neuritis)
- compression of the peripheral nerve. It can happen for such reasons — surgical operation, harmful occupational activity and so on.
- pathology of the endocrine system
- metabolic disorder
- inflammation of the middle ear
It is worth noting that often the symptoms of neuritis manifest after a severe hypothermia. In this case, the inflammatory process more often affects the occipital, trigeminal or facial nerve.
Clinicians share two main types of neuritis:
- mononewrites. In this case, the inflammatory process only covers one peripheral nerve, not extending to others;
- polyneuritis. Several peripheral nerves inflame at once.
The main symptom of inflammation of the peripheral nerve is the pain syndrome on the site that it innervates. In the area of lesion localization, there may be a decrease in sensitivity, impaired motor activity, numbness. Even atrophy of muscular structures is possible. Symptoms of inflammation directly depend on the type of ailment that struck a person.
Affection of the optic nerve
This form of ailment is more often diagnosed in people of working age. His symptoms are:
- «fog» before your eyes;
- pain syndrome occurs if the patient begins to move the eyeball intensively;
- Reducing the perception of different colors (become dull).
Defeat of the auditory nerve
A characteristic symptom of the ailment is a decrease in the auditory function. Also, the patient is disturbed by tinnitus, which occurs spontaneously. If the inflammation spreads to the nerve, uniting the brain and the vestibular apparatus, then the patient will have such symptoms:
- shaky walk
- nausea and vomiting are possible.
Lesion of the facial nerve
- the wrinkles on the forehead are smoothed out
- the lower lip is mixed downwards
- widening of the eye gap;
- Loss of ability to control facial muscles.
Radiation nerve damage
- «Hanging Brush» — extensor function of forearm and wrist is reduced
- the back of the brush loses its sensitivity.
Small tibial nerve injury
- «Hanging Stop» — a person can not fully stand on his heels
- changing gait;
- impaired motor function of the lower limbs;
- muscle structure atrophy at the site of inflammation localization
Shoulder nerve injury
- pain syndrome in the joint articulation
- limitation of the amplitude of movements;
- Decreased muscle strength
- decreased sensitivity of the skin in the area of inflammation
This term refers to the inflammation of the solar plexus. If this form of neuritis progresses, then the patient exhibits such symptoms:
- loose stools
- pain syndrome in the epigastric region
- blood pressure increase
- Feeling of fear and anxiety
Immediately it is worth noting that the clinic of the disease is very similar to the violation of circulation of blood in the brain, a brain tumor or multiple sclerosis. Therefore, it is very important to conduct competent differential diagnostics. The plan for diagnosis of the disease includes:
- examining the patient;
- collecting an anamnesis of life and the disease itself
- clinical and biochemical blood test
- general urine analysis
If necessary, the patient is referred for consultation to a narrow specialist.
Treatment of neuritis is carried out using:
- medicines that normalize blood flow in blood vessels
- means that improve the conductivity of the nerves
- Vitamin B
- antibiotic therapy
- interferon and gamma globulin (with neuritis of viral nature)
- vasoconstrictive drugs
- therapeutic gymnastics;
- Dehydration medicines.
Physiotherapy takes a special place in the treatment of neuritis. The following methods are used:
- manual impact;
- impulse current
- mud baths
- exercise therapy
- Radon baths