Neurodermatitis: Symptoms and Treatment
Neurodermatitis is a chronic skin disorder of the neurogenic and allergic nature of the lesion. Neurodermatitis, whose symptoms are also defined by the term atopic dermatitis or eczema (in adults) or diathesis (in children), is found among the population in about 40% of cases, being one of the most significant skin diseases.
The basis of the disease we are considering are factors of an endogenous scale, namely: a violation of the normal rhythm of the functioning of the metabolism, internal organs, and the nervous system. An important role in the appearance of neurodermatitis is played by the negative impact of certain environmental factors.
Among the leading symptoms that characterize the disease, there is quite intense and constant itching, arising due to the relevance of certain neurotic disorders. These include decreased / increased excitability, insomnia, asthenia, emotional lability, and so on. In addition, patients with neurodermatitis also face manifestation in the form of disorders in the vegetative system, this in turn manifests itself in the form of violations of thermoregulation, persistent white demographism, separation of sebum and sweat, etc.
It should be noted that some of the patients have violations of the functionality of the secondary nervous system, which is due to the prolonged manifestation of itching in combination with insomnia.
Children are most susceptible to the disease, due to which parents need to carefully examine the skin of the child, and, if the first signs indicating neurodermatitis are revealed, start treatment, which will avoid adverse consequences. In particular, the latter can be manifested as the formation of seals and characteristic changes in the relief of the skin. In addition, infectious diseases can also be noted in a variety of their varieties.
As the main measure of prevention of the disease we are interested in, specialists note the observance of correct and at the same time psychological hygiene at a professional level for adults, for children these measures consist, respectively, in observing the developed mode of feeding with general hygiene.
Neurodermatitis can provoke a lot of reasons, let’s focus on their main options:
- genetic predisposition (for example, the presence of an allergic disease in the parents will more than likely trigger neurodermatitis in their child)
- stresses, negative emotions
- prolonged physical / mental stress
- poor nutrition, day mode
- professional type of load (negative impact factors, actual in production conditions, in enterprises, etc.)
- intoxication of the body
- Diseases of the digestive system
Among the reasons that trigger the development of neurodermatitis, there are also identified external factors that cause allergic reactions, namely:
- food for fish in the form of dry mixtures
- animal hair
- Fillers in blankets, mattresses, pillows
- certain perfumes, cosmetics
- food products in the form of citrus fruits, strawberries, honey, etc. In addition, preservatives and dyes may also act as an allergen, which are also found in food.
When determining the specific cause that triggered the neurodermatitis, it is necessary to start treatment. It is important to note that only the elimination of the source that provoked the disease is a measure insufficient to cure the patient, therefore the acute form of the disease requires a specialist to seek appropriate treatment.
Neurodermatitis: types of disease
Neurodermatitis can manifest itself in various varieties, which is in particular caused by the degree of its spread along the skin. The following classification of this disease is distinguished:
- Limited neurodermatitis occurs only in the area of certain areas of the skin.
- Neurodermatitis diffuse as the foci of its manifestation, the face, neck, arms (the most common variant), popliteal and knee joints are distinguished.
- Neurodermatitis is hypertrophic — the manifestation is tumor-like, the area of concentration is the inguinal zone.
- psoriasisformal neurodermatitis manifests itself in the head and neck region, looks like compacted red foci covered with fine scales.
- Linear neurodermatitis — is characterized by the appearance of itching striae in the limb folding areas.
- Neurodermatitis dekulovirujushchy — is manifested in the area of the hairy areas on the body for subsequent loss in these zones.
- Neurodermatitis of the follicular — is characterized by the formation of pointed papules in the hair area
When considering the main symptoms characteristic of the disease we are considering, it is necessary, first of all, to allocate intense itching. For a long time, the foci formed on the skin do not visually change, but gradually, with combs, reddening reveals the presence of flat, small and noticeable nodular rashes on its background.
The first signs of the neurodermatitis include such primary morphological elements as epidermal-dermal papules that have the usual color inherent in the skin. These papules merge in certain places with each other, thus forming zones of papular infiltration of the solid type. In these areas, the skin is dry, has a significant amount of excoriation, and also small scales. As a result of infiltration, cracks appear in the areas of the skin folds.
In the usual manifestation, the clinical picture of the disease is expressed in the form of a skin rash with a rash with severe itching and neurotic disorders. In addition, there is a pronounced spiromotor reflex and white dermographism.
As a result of a decrease in kidney function, which is relevant for the disease under consideration, there is a swelling of the skin (hyperpigmentation), weight loss, weakness and fatigue, and lowering blood pressure. Secretion of gastric juice is low, the composition in the blood of glucose is reduced, urination is reduced, allergic reactions occur.
It is noteworthy that seasonality is characteristic for the course of neurodermatitis, in particular in the summer, the improvement in the condition is observed in patients, while in the winter the process is prone to exacerbation.
Despite the defeat of the limited neurodermatitis of individual parts of the skin, this does not exclude in the patients enough painful conditions caused by itching and appearing in the areas of the lesion, which is especially pronounced in the evening and night. The limited neurodermatitis focuses on the lateral and posterior surfaces of the neck, as well as in the area of the skin surrounding the genitals and the anus, in addition to the pathological process, the skin of the thigh area (on the inside), the flexor surfaces concentrated in the areas of large joints Interannual folds.
Neurodermatitis on the face
When the disease is localized on the face, the skin in patients acquires, as a rule, a pale appearance, directly the rash concentrates in the area of the mouth and eyes. Among the concomitant diseases that occur with neurodermatitis, localized on the face, highlight the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract (gastritis, intestinal microflora), ENT diseases, chronic infections, cataracts and even mental disorders.
Neurodermatitis on the face often becomes continuous, thus acquiring the character of a secondary form of erythroderma. Often there is infection of the foci with the subsequent development of lymphadenitis (inflammation of the lymph nodes), lymphangitis. Often, the disease is combined with diseases of the allergic type (urticaria, pollinosis, asthma).
Neurodermatitis on the face is accompanied, again, by an itch, which then forms a rash. Eruptions, in turn, are all also accompanied by itching, after which they are already transformed into wounds. Then there is swelling, after which the affected areas become wet. On the skin of the face is formed during this process peeling, and in complex these manifestations increase the risk of subsequent infection.
The most severe neurodermatitis on the face is borne by the children, because they often comb the skin to the blood, which leads to the appearance of wounds, all also prone to itching. Even more difficult is the situation with the progression of the disease due to the ineffectiveness of the applied course of treatment, which leads to even greater anguish of young patients.
As for the forecasts, they are far from always favorable, the disease often recurs.
Neurodermatitis in the arms
The main manifestation, as in the general case with the neurodermatitis, is itching, which in turn leads to extremely pronounced dryness of the skin on the hands, besides this, the palms are becoming more pronounced. Most often the neurodermatitis affects the area of the elbow joints, as well as the flexural surface of the forearm area. When washing sites that have suffered defeat, their soreness is manifested, the use of shower gels and moisturizing cream only leads to aggravation of the course of the disease.
As in the case of neurodermatitis on the face, the formation of nodular elements in a single variant is possible, often multiple scales appear, which subsequently turn into damp crusts. These crusts later disappear, in their place remain wound, which leads to the repetition of the flow of the process. Quite often neurodermatitis in the hands becomes chronic, it is not excluded and the possibility of its aggravation.
Neurodermatitis in children
Heredity plays a significant role in considering the causes of neurodermatitis, but as the main factor, it is still customary to allocate allergy. Most often it occurs as a result of the use of specific foods (millet, milk, etc.), or against the background of congenital intolerance to certain types of substances (cosmetics, pollen, wool, feathers, dust, etc.). Often, the allergy is not only congenital, but also acquired character, against which the neurodermatitis also develops.
It is noteworthy that often listed substances, although they are the cause of allergies, but often have nothing to do with it. This is explained by the fact that an allergy can occur against the background of the emotional and mental sphere, due to which the child feels so bad. As for the symptoms that are generally defined for neurodermatitis in children, among them, in particular, rashes and itching are noted.
A rash appears, primarily in the area behind the ears, as well as on the elbows and knee folds. In some cases, the localization process in the neck, fingers. Manifestation of the rash can be expressed in the form of spots, blisters, pustules, scars, blisters, in some cases — in the form of scales, crusts, scabs.
In all cases, the neurodermite is diagnosed by visual inspection in conjunction with the sample of the site that has been affected and with blood analysis.
Among the main methods aimed at treating neurodermatitis, the following are used:
- development of a special day regime (with full night sleep, balanced nutrition at certain times, physical activity)
- inpatient care
- diet food
- particularly acute cases require the use of hormone therapy
At the local level, antipruritic creams and ointments are used in the treatment of neurodermatitis, due to which the resorption of affected areas of the skin is performed.
In case of symptoms characteristic of the neurodermatitis, it is necessary to consult a dermatologist, in addition an infectious disease specialist may be needed.