OCR: symptoms and treatment


ARI (acute respiratory disease) is a group of ailments of a viral or bacterial origin, a characteristic feature of which is the defeat of the upper respiratory tract, symptoms of general intoxication of the body. Respiratory infections affect people from all age categories — from small children to the elderly. This group of diseases manifests itself seasonally — more often pathologies occur during the change of seasons (in the autumn-winter period). It is important to do timely prevention of ARI, so as not to get infected in the midst of an epidemic.

ARI can often cause epidemics that take on a mass character. In young children, ailments of this type are especially difficult (unlike adults), since their immune system is not yet fully formed and can not fully cope with pathogenic microorganisms. According to the type of pathogen, clinicians distinguish 3 groups of ARI — viral, mixed infections, and caused by protozoa.

Many people confuse ARD and ARI. But the difference between them really is. In the case of acute respiratory infections, the pathogens may be both viruses and bacteria. But ARVI is caused solely by viruses. We can say that this pathology is a type of acute respiratory diseases. Only a qualified doctor can distinguish these pathologies from each other, since the difference between them is small (even the symptoms are similar).

Reasons

The main reasons for the development of ailments from this group are more than 200 different viruses:


  • Rhinovirus
  • influenza
  • Adenovirus
  • paragripp;
  • PC virus
  • Picornavirus
  • Coronavirus
  • Bocarvirus and others.

The main source of infection is a sick person. It is contagious during the incubation and prodromal period, when the concentration of infectious agents in biological secrets is maximum. Infection can be airborne. It is not impossible to get infected through everyday objects, common utensils, dirty hands of children, through food, etc.

Susceptibility to infection in adults and children is different. People who have a strong immune system, can either not catch at all, or suffer an illness in an easy form. Separately, there are factors that contribute to the progression of respiratory infection in children and adults:


  1. the presence of chronic foci of infection in the body
  2. persistent stress
  3. Adverse environmental conditions
  4. irrational and unbalanced nutrition
  5. hypothermia.

Symptoms

Manifestations of respiratory infection are a combination of local respiratory manifestations, as well as a common infectious syndrome.

Syndrome of general intoxication:


  • temperature rise to high numbers and chills
  • decreased appetite
  • headache;
  • muscle pain;
  • weakness;
  • listlessness
  • rash on the skin (a characteristic difference of some infections)
  • enlargement of the lymph nodes in the neck and in the submaxillary region (this symptom of ARI is more common in children)

Signs of respiratory syndrome or catarrhal phenomena in adults and children may be somewhat different. Their severity depends on the type of virus that struck the person, and also on the reactivity of his body.

Common signs of pathology:






  1. lacrimation
  2. nasal congestion or profuse secretion of a mucous secretion
  3. the nasal mucosa is highly swollen;
  4. sore throat when swallowing
  5. dry cough
  6. Photophobia
  7. Persecution in the throat.

Symptoms that indicate a severe course of the disease or the development of possible complications:


  • the disease does not last for two weeks;
  • Temperature rise above 40 degrees. Taking antipyretics does not have the proper effect;
  • chest pain
  • cough during which brown, green or red sputum is secreted
  • severe headaches;
  • confusion
  • chest pain during the act of breathing
  • appearance of vascular asterisks on the skin.

Diagnostics

The diagnosis of pathology in adults and children is based, first of all, on the characteristic symptoms that are observed in acute respiratory diseases. In addition, the doctor may prescribe the following diagnostic procedures:


  1. consultation of an ENT doctor
  2. a general blood test;
  3. immunological studies (especially relevant when the disease is diagnosed in infants or in children 2-6 years of age)
  4. chest X-ray;
  5. if there is a suspicion of atypical infections, sputum bacilli are carried out.

Treatment

Treatment of ARI should be carried out only under the supervision of a doctor, since even a mild cold can give serious complications (especially if it developed in a baby or a small child). At home, it is permissible to treat mild forms of respiratory infections. In case of development of severe form, admission to hospital is indicated.

Treatment of ARI includes:


  • taking antiviral drugs. Usually, doctors prescribe to adults and children to take zanamivir, remantadine, oseltamivir;
  • strict bed rest, especially during fever;
  • drink abundantly. You can use decoctions of medicinal herbs, dog rose, drink tea, etc.
  • taking interferons;
  • When fever is taken antipyretic drugs. Adults are prescribed tablets or injections, children should take medicines in syrup,
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs
  • antihistamines
  • Herbal sore throat. This method of treatment is more suitable for adult patients, as not all children can gargle;
  • drugs that help alleviate pain and discomfort in the throat — sprays, lozenges for absorption
  • Drops with vasoconstrictive effect for instillation into the nose. They can even be used to treat babies, but only very carefully. You can wash the nasal passages with saline solutions (more applicable for adult patients)
  • Vitaminotherapy;
  • antitussives.

Treatment of ARI in the home can be done only with the permission of the treating doctor. It is important to adhere strictly to the treatment plan, so that the effect from it can be achieved as soon as possible. Treatment at home with folk remedies can be carried out only as a general restorative therapy, the action of which will be aimed at increasing the reactivity of the body. You can take decoctions of medicinal herbs, gargle with infusions. They can be easily prepared at home.

There is no need to treat respiratory infections with antimicrobial and antibacterial drugs. They can be prescribed only if secondary microbial complications are attached.

Complications


  1. myocarditis
  2. meningoencephalitis
  3. bronchitis
  4. pneumonia;
  5. sinusitis;
  6. sinusitis.

Prevention

Prevention of acute respiratory infections and influenza consists of the following activities:


  • refusal to smoke and use alcoholic beverages;
  • vaccination against influenza
  • taking multivitamin complexes;
  • prevention of ARI with immunomodulating and antiviral drugs
  • taking products containing the necessary amount of vitamins and nutrients for the body
  • good rest;
  • wearing a mask during an epidemic;
  • excluding contacts with sick people.