Oliguria: Symptoms and Treatment

Oliguria or a decrease in urine output, is not a disease in itself, but is considered a symptom indicating problems with the kidneys or the urinary system as a whole. It occurs in children, adolescents and adults.

In oliguria, 400-500 ml of urine is produced and released, while the average daily urinary output rate in humans is about one and a half liters. Most often oliguria affects adults, because for children a reduced amount of emitted urine is considered the norm.

Only doctors can diagnose oliguria, as self-diagnosis can lead to severe consequences. It is worth noting that often this symptom is accompanied by nicturia. This means that throughout the day a person uses a certain amount of fluid, which because of the inflammatory process can not fully exit in a natural way. At night, the urinary system is more relaxed than the day. Therefore, it is at this time of day that a person has to visit the toilet room more often.


Depending on the reasons for the progression, the oliguria is divided into these types:

  • prerenal
  • Renal
  • postrenal.

The main reason for the development of oliguria of the first type is an additional exit from the body of the fluid. It can be:

  1. high sweating
  2. severe diarrhea;
  3. prolonged starvation
  4. poisoning manifested in vomiting
  5. bleeding.

The reasons for the progression of the renal oliguria are various manifestations of abnormal kidney function caused by various processes or inflammations. Identify their presence is possible only through the method of laboratory diagnosis (urine analysis).

An emergency view of the oliguria can cause:

  • conglomerates in the kidney;
  • bladder cancer
  • reduction of the urethra;
  • clogging the ureter with blood clots or swelling

In any of its manifestations, oliguria can occur in diseases of the heart and kidneys, inadequate fluid administration along with food (for example, underfeeding of infants). Individual causes of oliguria may affect women during pregnancy and newborn babies. To accurately determine this condition in these individuals, you need to conduct a complete examination and take a sampling of analyzes (urines).


The insignificance of excretion of urine from the body — this is the main symptom of oliguria. This process is a sign of the aforementioned ailments, and can also be accompanied by a violation of the general well-being of the patient. If a person during the day rarely visits the toilet, but does not feel any discomfort, you do not have to worry. The amount of urine emitted can differ in people with different body complexions, depending on the age or season of the year (in winter more, in summer, less). But still, if such a condition, albeit without discomfort, lasts for more than three days, then it is worth to go to a medical institution and undergo a survey.

Absolutely in all cases, the symptoms of oliguria are:

  1. a rare visit to the toilet to cope with a small need
  2. pain and drawing sensations when urinating;
  3. discomfort in the abdomen.

Do not forget that oliguria itself is a symptom of many diseases associated with kidney dysfunction.


There are no special problems to detect the presence of oliguria. The main diagnosis is aimed at determining the causes of the onset of the disease. For the beginning it is necessary to spend full inspection and to take necessary analyzes. For a more complete examination, the patient should undergo ultrasound of the kidneys and urinary canals. In rare cases, the passage of magnetic resonance imaging with contrast agent is prescribed.

One of the main tests that should be given to the patient is urine analysis. This will be the main indicator when you need to make a final diagnosis.

For additional diagnostic purposes, hourly monitoring of the patient is established. If it emits less than 50 ml of urine per hour, this is one of the complications of oliguria and requires additional assessments.

Occasionally, common common urine and blood tests are sufficient to determine the causes of oliguria. If, after this, the causes of the occurrence could not be identified, the diagnostic activities will include additional consultations of such specialists as:

  • Gynecologist
  • Allergist;
  • Therapist
  • Dermatologist.

Special diagnosis requires oliguria in children. Most often it affects newborn babies, in which a small amount of urine is normal. But if the color, odor, or degree of fluid transparency changes, parents should immediately consult a doctor.


Treatment of oliguria is aimed at:

  1. Elimination of the cause;
  2. treatment of the disease;
  3. restoration of blood circulation;
  4. balancing the body;
  5. Elimination of possible complications.

The choice of medications depends on the causes or processes of the disease identified during the diagnosis. Oliguria is a process that can be stopped. The excretion of urine from the body in normal volume comes to normal almost immediately after the cause or symptoms of its progression are eliminated.

Separately, and more closely, it is worth treating the oliguria in pregnant women and children. Untimely access to specialists can lead to complication of oliguria — complete absence of urine. Treatment with folk remedies in this case is unacceptable.

Some people who have discovered the symptoms of a disease, try to get rid of them by themselves using diuretics. But this should not be done, because such drugs can change the results of analysis and the structure of urine. First you need to determine the causes of the pathology (only when consulting a doctor), and only then begin treatment. The only thing a person can do himself during the treatment is to follow a diet that the specialist will indicate.


The kidneys of the average adult are about 75-80% of the fluid consumed by them per day. Therefore, the main method of prevention is to monitor the amount of fluid consumed, and the amount of secretions, while observing such indicators as odor and light. If there are any abnormalities and irregularities in the general condition, you should consult your doctor.

Preventing oliguria consists of such items:

  • respect the rules of personal hygiene
  • discard the use of alcohol and tobacco
  • treat existing inflammations or infections at the slightest of their manifestations

  • Take medicine only as directed by a specialist.