Orchitis: symptoms and treatment
Orchitis is a disease that causes inflammation of the testicle, which, as a rule, is a complication that has arisen against the background of infectious diseases. Orchitis, the symptoms of which can manifest themselves in the acute or chronic form of their own course, as an independent disease is extremely rare.
The development of orchitis in 5% of cases occurs because of the patient suffering a testicle injury. As for other cases that provoke the onset of this disease, they are, above all, infectious diseases, such as influenza, typhoid, pneumonia and others. In addition, orchitis can also cause inflammation, concentrated in the genitourinary system (vesiculitis, urethritis, prostatitis, epididymitis).
In newborns, the majority of orchitis develops due to infection in the testicle through inflamed umbilical vessels. Orchitis in older children occurs usually as a complication of such a disease as epidemic parotitis. Significantly, this disease occurs because of hematogenous spread of infection, and also because of a testicle injury or long-term catheterization.
As we have already noted, orchitis can occur in acute or chronic form. Predominantly acute orchitis becomes a complication arising from an infectious disease in its acute form, chronic orchitis, respectively, arises from a chronic inflammatory process.
Acute orchitis: symptoms
As the first symptom of orchitis, the pain that arises in the testicle is highlighted. There is a possibility of their irradiation (spread) to the perineum, sacrum, groin or lumbar region. In the affected area, the scrotum is doubled (or more), its skin folds are smoothed. After a few days, the skin temperature in the scrotum area rises, it becomes as if polished, glossy and hyperemic. The testicle, which has been affected by the inflammatory process, increases in size, palpation determines the sharp soreness. Beginning with the first day of onset, orchitis in acute form manifests itself in combination with the symptoms inherent in intoxication, hyperthermia can reach temperatures up to 39 degrees.
In most cases, the symptoms of orchitis even without treatment disappear within two to four weeks. In some situations, the progression of the inflammatory process is possible, which in turn leads to the formation of an abscess of the testicle. As a result of suppuration, the skin hyperemia of the testicle is observed in a very pronounced manifestation of its manifestations, with a touch marked by sharp soreness.
A testicle tissue damaged by a purulent process with an abscess produces less semen. In some cases, this can cause secretion infertility.
Because of mumps mumps orchitis can occur from the third day of the appearance of this disease, as well as to the end of the first week from the moment of recovery from the patient. A third of the patients experience the course of the process involving both testicles. In frequent cases, the outcome of acute orchitis, which has arisen against epidemic parotitis, manifests itself in the form of testicular atrophy.
Chronic orchitis: symptoms
Orchitis in chronic form can occur against the background of an incomplete orchitis in its acute form. A number of cases indicate that the chronic form of orchitis occurs as a result of inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system with a chronic course (prostatitis, urethritis, vesiculitis).
Chronic orchitis is characterized by extreme scarcity of their own symptoms. So, quite often the only symptom of the disease manifests itself in the form of soreness, which occurs when the testicle touches. Exacerbation of the chronic form of orchitis can occur with the appearance of pain in the testicle, which is felt quite acutely during walking and running.
Chronic inflammatory process leads to a decrease in the secretory function characteristic of testicles, which quite often defines this disease as the main cause of male infertility.
Diagnosis of orchitis
Diagnosis of orchitis in the acute form of the flow occurs on the basis of the data obtained during a physical examination, as well as in the presence of a patient with an infectious disease predisposing to orchitis or a corresponding trauma. Differential diagnosis with acute form of epididymitis is carried out on the basis of an objective study.
Acute orchitis, as we have already noted, is characterized by the intensity of the skin arising in the scrotal area, acute epididymitis is characterized by puffiness. Acute orchitis occurs without enlarging the appendage. In both cases, the presence of edema, as well as the thickening formed in the spermatic cord, is noted, meanwhile, in the case of acute orchitis there is a lack of infiltrative changes occurring along the course of the vas deferens.
In some cases, diagnosis of acute forms of orchitis is difficult due to the formation of a testicle in the testicle or periorhitis. Doubtful situations require ultrasound scanning, as well as biopsy of the testicle. Suspicion of the presence of an abscess requires the performance of a diagnostic puncture, as well as an appropriate ultrasound examination, through which the liquid contents will be determined.
Treatment of orchitis
In the case of an uncomplicated acute form of orchitis, his treatment is performed on an outpatient basis. The patient is required in this case, bed rest, the diet provides for the exclusion of spicy dishes. The affected organ is kept at rest in a somewhat elevated position. In addition, therapy is carried out, aimed at eliminating the underlying disease, which caused acute orchitis. Prescribed vitamins and antibiotics, as well as enzymes and preparations of resorptive action. In the event of a threat of suppuration, the patient is hospitalized. After the acute inflammatory manifestations of the disease are eliminated, the patient with acute orchitis additionally needs to undergo physiotherapy.
In the case of acute orchitis, which has been complicated in the form of an abscess of the testicle, surgical intervention with the opening of the purulent focus and its drainage is necessary. With complete purulent melting, to which the testicle is subjected, an orchiectomy is performed (a procedure in which the affected testicle is removed).
As for the therapy provided for chronic orchitis, there are often difficulties, caused in particular by the persistence with which the disease occurs in this form. In addition, the scarcity of the symptoms often excludes patients’ awareness of the presence of chronic orchitis, which in turn leads to the required treatment in the stage of the process in which the testicle acquires already very pronounced changes.
Patients with a diagnosis of chronic orchitis are prescribed antibacterial therapy, thermal procedures and physiotherapy procedures. The unfavorable course of the disease, as well as the ineffectiveness of the conservative therapy used, imply the use of treatment in the form of unilateral orchiectomy.
In case of a symptom that indicates the possible presence of orchitis, you need to contact a urologist, in addition you need to contact an infectious disease specialist.