Osteomyelitis of the jaw: symptoms and treatment


Inflammatory processes that arise in the bone marrow, indicate a disease of the osteomyelitis of the jaw. The development of malaise is the result of the infiltration of infectious organisms into bone tissue. This disease is complex and is one of the dangerous ailments. In addition as a result of osteomyelitis of the jaw appears generalization, that is, a condition in which not only affects a certain part of the bone, and the bone is completely whole human system. The disease extends to all bone tissues and is caused by the development of inflammation and infection of the body.

Classification

Depending on the factors of the lesion and the nature of the course of the osteomyelitis of the jaws, the disease is divided into the following classes:


  • Traumatic. It is provoked as a result of various kinds of mechanical influences on the human jaw: injuries, fractures. The affected part is a «window» for penetration into the cavity of viruses and bacterial microorganisms.
  • Hematogenous. It arises from the arrival of mycobacteria, which are brought by blood. First of all, it is caused by the infection of blood, which, in turn, carries the virus throughout the body, including the bone marrow.
  • Radiation. It is characterized by a lesion of the maxillofacial area as a result of a malignant tumor.
  • Odontogenic. It occurs as a result of serious complications of dental diseases (caries, stomatitis). To date, odontogenic osteomyelitis of the jaws in humans, is the most common malaise.
  • Osteomyelitis of the jaw that occurs due to tooth extraction . Characterized by the appearance of the disease due to incomplete removal of the dental nerve with the tooth, resulting in further stimulation of the cavity, developing into suppuration, and then in a serious ailment.

According to the disease stages, the following types are classified:


  1. Acute;
  2. Subacute;
  3. Chronic.

Signs of acute osteomyelitis of the jaw result from the body’s reaction to infection in the bone marrow and tissue.

Subacute appearance is caused in case of incomplete cure or incompleteness of symptoms of acute illness.

Chronic osteomyelitis of the jaws is characterized by prolonged inflammation of the bone tissue, which has not been eliminated for a long time. With a chronic illness, a person can feel completely healthy for a while.

Causes of occurrence

It is very important to know the causes of a dangerous disease in order to be able to exclude them for yourself, therefore …

odontogenic osteomyelitis occurs in 75% of the population and is invoked only when no cure dental diseases such as:.. pulpitis, dental caries, periodontitis, alveolitis, cyst tooth, etc. Infection penetrates through Root of the tooth or on the infected pulp.

Hematogenous osteomyelitis occurs as a result of the observation in humans following ailments:. purulent otitis, tonsillitis, omphalitis sepsis in newborns during healing of the umbilicus, diphtheria and scarlet fever Primarily affected bone tissue of the oral cavity, and then the teeth Rights.

Traumatic grounds characterized by the following reasons for its occurrence: jaw fractures, cuts, gunshot wounds, damage to the nasal mucosa. Thus, the infection penetrates into the bone tissue from the environment.

staphylococcus, streptococcus, E. coli, fuzobakterii, Klebsiella and other pathogens as the cause of osteomyelitis of the jaws. Lesions of bone tissues in a large value depend, first of all, on the strength of the immune system, in people who have weak immunity a high probability of manifestation of the disease. Weakened immunity is observed in people suffering from diabetes, rheumatism, kidney and liver diseases, as well as blood diseases.

Symptomatic of the disease

The main symptoms of malaise include most of the signs that are similar to other diseases, so diagnosis is mandatory only by a specialist.

Symptoms of the osteomyelitis of the jaws are characterized by the following kinds of manifestations:


  • The patient has a sharp increase in temperature to 38 degrees, and most often in the nighttime. A person becomes nervous, irritable, worried, sleeps badly and complains of constant headaches even after taking medications.
  • Pain signs in the oral cavity in the area of ​​the teeth are accompanied, and the pain is constantly increasing.
  • Over time, the pain in the cavity is amplified and spread throughout the cavity.
  • The nasal mucosa is being swollen.
  • There is also an expansion of the lymph nodes and a painful sensation occurs when you touch them.

Symptoms of odontogenic appearance

Symptoms of the disease «osteomyelitis of the jaw» are characterized by a decrease in the sensitivity of the receptors of the lower part of the lip and chin. Due to the appearance of osteomyelitis due to a diseased tooth, there is an increase in pain. When you try to touch the sick tooth, there is an exacerbation of pain, which becomes pulsating. These symptoms are inherent only odontogenic variety of the disease. With the passage of time, the mobility of the diseased tooth arises.

Symptoms of acute form

In some situations, the symptoms of the disease «osteomyelitis of the jaw» do not cause a rise in body temperature, which indicates a weakening of the human immune system. Symptoms of acute osteomyelitis of the jaws are manifested in the following form:


  1. the mobility of the jaws decreases
  2. pains occur when chewing food
  3. patient’s limp state
  4. the skin takes on a white (with grayscale) color;
  5. yellowing of the eye shell occurs on the face
  6. the pressure can be either increased or decreased.

Symptomatic of subacute species

Symptoms of subacute osteomyelitis are characterized by the appearance of a fistula and the emergence of an outflow of pus and inflammatory fluid. The patient has a sense of relief, but this is a temporary sign, as the process of infection is not stopped. Continues to further increase pain symptoms after a few days (rarely up to a week). The subacute form of the disease in a person manifests itself in the form of cessation of pain, but at the same time the mobility of the teeth remains. Subacute osteomyelitis is caused by the appearance three to four months after the onset of the first symptoms of the disease. Very rarely patients come with symptoms of subacute osteomyelitis of the upper jaw. If at the stage of subacute indisposition do not start treatment, then a complication develops into chronic osteomyelitis of the jaws.





The chronic appearance is very difficult to treat, therefore it is necessary to start the fight against the disease in advance. When the phase of a chronic ailment for the body is characterized by the following symptoms of manifestation:


  • Common malaise and chills occur
  • The temperature rises to 40 degrees, especially in children
  • Frequent heartbeat
  • Pressure drop
  • From the mouth there is a withdrawal of an unpleasant odor (the smell of pus)
  • When examining the oral cavity in the place of the source of the disease, you can notice the release of inflammatory fluid and purulent masses
  • Increased pathological mobility of teeth
  • The patient feels numbness of the lips, the sensitivity of the receptors is impaired
  • Chronic appearance is characterized by the appearance of inflammatory processes in blood tests
  • Pain when opening the mouth
  • If the tooth is removed, then an abundant discharge of purulent masses from the wound is noticed
  • After tooth extraction within 1-2 days, the patient does not observe any improvement in the condition, but only after this time the condition stabilizes.

Depending on the focus of inflammation, the disease is distinguished by osteomyelitis of the lower jaw and upper.

When the disease is localized in the lower jaw, the patient complains of persistent pain symptoms in the area of ​​the lower teeth, there is swelling, redness of the mucosa. There is an increase in lymph nodes in the neck and reduced mobility of the joints. There is numbness of the lower part of the face, which is due to the spread of the focus.

Symptoms of the disease «osteomyelitis of the upper jaw» are the same for both adults and children. But the factor of speed of definition of symptoms at грудничков is very important, as they are characterized by pronounced symptoms of malaise.

The main symptom of developing a foci of malaise is pain in the upper part of the mouth.

Diagnosis

At the first symptoms of an illness, you should immediately go to the dental center to conduct a survey and identify the exact diagnosis and picture of malaise. The clinic initially conducts a survey, an examination of the patient, and then with a real suspicion and an X-ray examination. But not always such a survey allows you to get complete information about the intra-maxillary processes. To do this, you need to donate blood to detect purulent substances in it.

Diagnosis is based on the patient’s symptoms and indications, so it is extremely important for the patient to identify all the signs of the disease.

Treatment

The treatment of the osteomyelitis of the jaws is based on the identification of the stage in which the disease is located. It is with this that treatment begins.

The acute stage of the disease of the jaw osteomyelitis involves treatment with the help of complex therapy. Initially, surgical intervention is carried out, which includes removal of purulent deposits in bone tissues. After removal, disinfection, cleansing, stimulation and strengthening of bone tissue and oral cavity is carried out. Depending on the nature of the disease, a complex of treatment is selected, which includes: the intake of vitamins and adaptogens. For stimulation, the patient is irradiated with quartz.

Chronic osteomyelitis of the jaw is treated by removing sequestered bone sites. After the removal of sequesters and granulations, the bone is cleaned and filled with osteoplastic materials containing antibiotics. If there is a threat of recurrence of fractures, then the splinting is performed.

According to practice, it is known that most often there is an osteomyelitis of the lower jaw in a person. The treatment procedure includes, first of all, tooth extraction — with odontogenic form, infection sanitation — with hematogenous, or wound elimination — with traumatic.

Often, treatment activities are aimed at removing causes and consequences. The treatment process takes place in a hospital under the supervision of the attending physician, and only to improve the condition, the patient is allowed to discharge. It is necessary to visit the dental office for prevention. Prophylaxis includes the passage of ultrasound therapy, UHF and electrophoresis. It is also necessary to treat caries in a timely manner, avoid respiratory diseases and injure the oral cavity.

Treatment with traditional medicine is impossible because of the need for surgical intervention and the use of medicines. But traditional medicine can prevent the onset of the disease and prevent infection of the oral cavity.