Otosclerosis (otosposy): symptoms and treatment
Otosclerosis (another name for the disease — otosposgov) is the defeat of the capsule of the bone in the inner ear. As a result of otosclerosis, the patient develops hearing loss, dysfunction of the hearing aid and ankylosis of the stapes. Together with the deafness the patient can feel pain in the ears, as well as dizziness. The disease usually affects one ear, but after a while without proper treatment passes and the second.
The statistics show that 1% of the population has a predominantly female population, and most often its symptoms occur between the ages of 25 and 35 years. Usually treatment involves surgery.
The appearance of otosclerosis is associated with several causes:
- heredity factor. Most often, otpresgio is a family disease. Also, ear damage sometimes occurs in pregnant women (doctors explain this by disorders in the thyroid gland and vascular diseases), which can contribute to the acquisition of the disease by future offspring;
- infection factor. Doctors found that the damage to the vessels of the inner ear can develop due to a disease, for example, measles, but the patient must have a hereditary predisposition to the disease
- the factor of injuries and other disorders. It occurs if there are traumas of an acoustic nature, vascular damage — the blood supply of the capsule of the ear labyrinth or the development of calcification of tissues is impaired.
Classification of the disease
Specialists distinguish 3 types of otosclerosis, depending on the type of impairment of the functioning of the ear:
- conductive. With this form, only the sound is disturbed, and the sound perception remains normal. This type of otosclerosis is, from the point of view of the prognosis for recovery, the most favorable, since it usually assumes a complete restoration of the hearing. In some cases, along with medicines, people are prescribed to take folk remedies;
- Mixed. With this form of illness, sound perception and sound is disturbed. It is difficult to treat this type of infection. In some cases, doctors can only restore bone conduction of sound;
- cochlear. When developing this form, the ear-perceiving ear function is significantly impaired (when audiogram is audible, the threshold for carrying out with the bone type is not more than 40 dB). Even surgery is not capable of eliminating all symptoms, and does not always lead to sufficient for normal life, hearing and ear receptacles.
Depending on the nature of the manifestation, the consecration is divided into:
- slow (observed in 2/3 of cases)
- spasmodic (observed in 20% of patients)
- fast (observed in about 10% of patients).
Symptoms of disease
Otpospogi, as a rule, develops quite unnoticed. The stage when the patient does not feel any symptoms of the disease is called histological. It should be noted that at this stage, changes in the ear are already beginning to occur — the structure of bone tissue changes in the ear maze and the functioning of the vessels. From the moment of the onset of the development of the disease to the moment of manifestation of the first noticeable signs, it may take about 3 years. Diagnosis of otosclerosis at this stage is possible only with the help of audiometry. Beginning with the second stage, we can distinguish such basic symptoms:
- Hearing loss. At the initial stages of the disease, the patient usually does not distinguish between low tones (in particular, male voices), but he hears high (child and female voices). Also, there may be a transmission to the ear snail of extraneous sounds that pass through the soft tissues (chewing food, the sound of footsteps). Further, this symptom can only worsen — its regression is impossible, but it does not reach complete deafness;
- Noise in the ear. It is noted by more than 80% of patients with this disease. The degree of noise that a patient hears does not depend on the degree of deafness and vascular lesions. Doctors suggest that this symptom has a direct relationship with metabolic-type disorders or vascular problems;
- ear pain. Appears during periods of relapse of otosclerosis. Its localization is in the mastoid process. Usually, after the onset of pain, the patient begins to hear worse;
- dizziness. This rare symptom, as a rule, has a weak character;
- neurasthenic syndrome. This symptom is directly related to the fact that patients can not fully communicate with others, become withdrawn, become lethargic and drowsy
Diagnosis of the disease
The doctor diagnoses a patient with otpesiogio if he appeals to him with complaints of ear noise and hearing loss. The main task of the doctor — to distinguish otosposgioz from, for example, an ear tumor, otitis, the presence of sulfuric cork or neuritis. To do this, he will appoint a patient to otoscopy, and also carefully examine his ears.
Using otoscopy, you can determine the absence of plugs from sulfur, dryness, and changes in the skin of the auditory canal. Also, if a patient is suspected of having an episode, the doctor will give the patient an audiometry that detects problems with the perception of quiet sounds (whispers). In some cases, the disease can be detected if a radiograph of the skull or CT is performed.
Treatment of the disease
Treatment of otosclerosis involves the use of:
- surgical methods (operations)
- folk remedies.
Surgical treatment with otosclerosis (surgery) aims to improve the mechanism of sound transmission to the perilymph of the ear maze. The operation is performed if the threshold of bone conduction of sounds does not exceed 25 dB, and the aerial threshold does not exceed 50 dB. If the perception of sounds to patients is above these limits or an active phase of treatment is underway, the operation is contraindicated. There are 3 types of operations for the treatment of otosclerosis:
- creating an additional hole in the labyrinth
- mobilization of the stirrup
Stapedoplasty is performed to release the stapes from the bone processes that immobilize it. Fenestration — the second type of treatment, however, like stapedoplasty, it is temporary (several years). It should be noted that stapedoplasty is considered the most effective method, which provides a 80% successful cure for the disease. Treatment of otosclerosis can restore the vessels and the mechanism of sound transmission, but treatment should be combined with other methods — hearing anaesthesia, therapy.
Treatment of otosclerosis folk remedies may be an additional, but not the main method of treatment of blood vessels and ears. Among the many recipes distinguish such folk remedies:
- Potato juice. This folk remedy is recommended to be used daily for half a year;
- Olive or vegetable oil. It is recommended to drink it daily for several months to suppress symptoms of the disease;
- A mixture of lemon juice, butter and honey. This folk remedy is also recommended to be taken every day on an empty stomach
- Dill seeds. This folk remedy is recommended for severe ear pain;
- Melissa. This folk remedy helps to eliminate dizziness.