Ozena: Symptoms and Treatment
Ozena is an atrophic progressing process in the cartilaginous and bony structures of the nose and mucous membrane of the nasal passages, accompanied by the release of mucus with an unpleasant odor and the formation of fetid crusts. This disease was known in ancient times, and in our days such pathology is extremely rare, and most often it affects middle-aged women, as well as children. Often, cases of ozens occur among people living in unfavorable conditions.
To this day, doctors can not establish the exact reasons for the development of this disease. According to some scientists, in the development of pathology the leading place is occupied by congenital anomalies in the development of the facial skeleton, including shortened nasal passages and underdeveloped nasal sinuses. According to other scientists, the causes lie in the necrotic lesion of the nasal mucosa due to the progression of various pathologies (eg, rhinitis). When necrosis spreads, the surrounding cartilage and bone structures are damaged.
In addition, there is a well-founded assumption regarding the fact that the lake develops in people who are irrational and malnourished. As a consequence, the body loses nutrients, which causes pathological processes in the tissues that lead to mucosal regeneration and destruction of the bones of the nose.
Due to the fact that various colonies of microorganisms have been found in the offensive secretion from the nasal passages, some researchers are convinced that the lake has an infectious etiology, and the reasons for its occurrence lie in the colonization of mucous bacteria.
But the most reliable theory of the development of this pathology to date is the claim that it arises as a consequence of the defeat of the nerves of the pterygoid node with the development of disruption of their functioning.
The hereditary factor in the development of the lake is also traced — and if the family has this pathology, the likelihood of its manifestation in the future generation increases at times. Due to the fact that the disease is more often found in women than in men, scientists concluded that endocrine disorders also play a significant role in the development of the disease — in particular, pathologies affect women during puberty and the onset of menstruation, pregnant women as well as women Menopause.
The disease manifests itself in three stages. The first stage is an ordinary runny nose, which starts imperceptibly and gradually progresses. Most common cold develops in childhood, and parents note that their baby from the nose is constantly flowing. It should be noted that the runny nose in the lake has its own peculiarities — it is initially sufficiently thick and viscous to separate, it has an unpleasant smell and often has a purulent character. The surrounding people and parents feel the fetid smell coming from the child. Usually the child’s condition is not disturbed, but at times he can complain about such symptoms as weakness, headache, decreased appetite and sleep disturbances.
The peculiarity of the flow of the lake is the inability to stop the runny nose by any means. Parents of children with this pathology often complain that as they do not try to cure the rhinitis, no funds from rhinitis work, and mucus from the nose continues to stand out, exuding a fetid smell. In adolescence, the process intensifies, and the symptoms worsen, but the child himself does not feel the fetid smell caused by the pathology, since he has already been affected by the olfactory receptors. At the same time, the surrounding people are more and more avoiding the child with this pathology, because it produces a putrid smell and has bad breath.
The second stage — the stage of height, falls on a young age (20-25 years). During this period, a person not only notes a runny nose, but also the appearance of crusts, which are very difficult to remove. When they are removed, it can be noted that they also exude a terrible putrefactive odor. In this case, the process of nasal breathing is disturbed, since the crusts prevent the passage of air through the nasal passages. The nose is laid, the mucous membrane is dry, and the viscous discharge continues to bother the person.
At this stage, patients often complain of symptoms such as pain in the forehead and nose pyramids, they are disturbed by sleep and lethargy and decreased performance. Often there are nosebleeds.
The terminal stage (the final stage) is a self-healing process. The void disappears, as does the runny nose, the cortex also leaves the person, finally gets rid of the fetid smell. Nevertheless, the dryness of the mucosa and the lack of smell remain until the end of life. The terminal stage usually develops at the age of 40, that is, a person lives his whole life with this pathology, which is not only bad for his health, but also for his psychological state, because people, for the most part avoid it, and it is difficult for him to adapt to live in society .
Sometimes the symptoms of the disease are of an atypical nature — patients may have a one-sided ozone, or ozona, involving cartilage and bone structures, which leads to an expansion of the nasal passages and curvature of the nasal septums.
Against the backdrop of a pathology like ozona, complications develop — laryngitis, chronic sinusitis, otitis, blepharitis and conjunctivitis, that is, inflammatory lesions of related organs — ears, eyes, pharynx and trachea, etc.
Diagnosis and treatment of pathology
Diagnosis of this disease is based on complaints and visual examination of the patient, which already suggests that he has such a pathology as an ostium. Symptoms of the disease are so specific that they are difficult to confuse with the symptoms of other pathologies of the nose. However, to confirm the diagnosis, instrumental examination methods, such as rhinoscopy and pharyngoscopy, are also prescribed.
Radiographic examination of the bones of the skull and paranasal sinuses allows a differential diagnosis with atrophic rhinitis and other diseases. Also, CT of paranasal sinuses and bacteriological examination of smears are prescribed.
Treatment of a disease such as an ostentine can be medicated and surgical. The medicinal treatment of the lake is the use of rational antibiotic therapy. In order to remove purulent secretions and crusts, the nasal passages are washed with special solutions (saline solution, disinfectant solutions and other medicinal preparations). Also used are ointments and oil solutions of vitamins, silver nitrate and endozonal installations for topical treatment.
A good effect is provided by the treatment of the lake with physiotherapy methods — patients are prescribed electrophoresis, UFO.
As the nasal passage extends in the lake, the pathology can be treated either surgically by implant placement or by performing an operation to move the side walls of the nose. Also, treatment of the lake involves the use of funds to moisturize the mucous membrane, which allows you to get rid of dryness and feel more comfortable.